Proper receipt, storage and processing of milk are the basis for the preservation of its valuable qualities. Consumption of dairy products in our country is increasing every year, and producers fill the market with a variety of livestock products. It becomes extremely important to preserve the taste characteristics of this valuable product derived from milk cows. Then it will be much easier to realize the products of processing differing in the mode of production.
Receiving and primary processing
Qualitative indicators of milk are laid during the period of feeding the cow, for which one should extremely closely monitor its diet, including in the pasture period.
A range of unlimited feeds can affect milk production and lead to changes in its taste. This was described in detail in the article "Diseases of milk: salty, sour and other defects."
Proper milk production prohibits the use of colostrum (given by a cow in the first days after calving) and old-aged (salted) product produced by animals 10-15 days before launch.
Such products are used for the production of powdered whole milk. They are processed into whole milk replacer (milk replacer) and used in animal husbandry for calves.
Flow-shop technology for milk production requires that the rules of hygiene and other dairy technologies are carefully observed when milking cows. It is important to prevent infections in the resulting product. But keeping a large number of cows in a farm environment means mixing milk yields, which can lead to the rapid spread of bacteria.
Farm products must be cleaned of solid impurities, for which strainers are used, as well as filters made of gauze and other special material. Immediately after cleaning, the product is cooled and delivered to the place of dairy production, which carries out its processing. Here is the acceptance of milk in accordance with the requirements and its initial processing.
Transportation of milk and other dairy products from the farm should be carried out in a short time in closed containers that can not be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria.
Heat treatment is an important stage of production.
Most often in the markets of the country milk is sold that has not undergone heat treatment. It has a natural taste, but very quickly deteriorates or turns sour as a result of the vital activity of fermented milk bacteria that enter it from the body of a cow.
Compliance with the production technology of drinking milk involves the destruction of microorganisms that can lead to souring of dairy products. The most commonly used method of processing at home is its maximum thermalization or boiling, which allows to increase the shelf life for a longer time. But in industrial conditions it is preferable to look for the technology of production of pasteurized milk, which allows preserving the taste properties of the product.
Depending on what kind of milk processing technology is used, the resulting product is heated to a temperature of 65 to 74 degrees Celsius and held for a certain period of time (the higher the temperature, the less time is required for pasteurization), after which it is cooled to + 2 + 4 degrees Celsius by sending in special refrigerators.
In some cases, cooking melted milk is used, for which it is thermalized to + 85 + 99 degrees, and aged at this temperature for three hours.
The use of this technology is time consuming, so getting melted milk is not common and is made exclusively for domestic consumption.
Keep in mind that cows give milk with different percentages of fat. When mixing the product from various animals, the fat content in the mixture differs from the standard indicators, which requires additional technological manipulations.
The production of milk with a low fat content of up to 0.5% requires separation of the product received from the cow, followed by bringing the indicators of fat to the required indicators.
Condensed milk and other canned milk
Milk canned foods are milk concentrates, which have been subjected to special treatment and can be stored for a long time.
The organization of production of this type of milk requires compliance with certain rules and technologies that significantly reduce the percentage of liquid and completely destroy the pathogenic bacteria using heat treatment.
For many years practiced the production of condensed milk with sugar, which
could be stored for a long time, but in recent years the production of dried milk has become a priority. This method of concentration of dry substances makes it possible to provide areas and territories with valuable products, where, due to climatic and other conditions, keeping cattle is impossible.
Also, the production of milk powder allows you to meet the demand of residents of large settlements, near which there is not enough dairy farms.
Dozens of enterprises specializing in the production of powdered whole milk work in Russia and other countries of the world. It is very popular, second only to condensed milk, to which sugar and other ingredients are added.
Dry and condensed to a uniform consistency, the milk has a high nutritional value, it is convenient to pack up and pack. When transporting dairy products and condensed milk over long distances, it is possible, even in remote areas, to produce reconstituted milk, which is used for feeding infant babies and early feeding of children.
The production technology of condensed milk from milk powder is very simple. To do this, it is enough to dissolve the dry concentrate in specially prepared water and conduct heat treatment of the mixture.
Produced by mixing concentrated or powdered milk with water, the product is called "The product of the processing of milk and dairy products restored" and is not considered a complete product. But it incorporates a complete set of essential proteins and fats.
Production of fermented milk products
The use of a flow-shop system for milk production in most cases implies the presence of special technological lines on which dairy products are made. The main difference is the use of streptococci, fermented milk sticks or milk fungus.
The past heat treatment process of drinking milk of necessary fat content is cooled to a temperature of + 35 + 40 degrees. After that, add a small amount of starter, calculated by a special technological formula. Depending on the type of culture of streptococcus, after 6-10 hours, high-quality yogurt or yogurt will be obtained, and when milk is infected with a special fungus, kefir is formed.
Milk and dairy products undergo a process of repeated heat treatment. Then they are bottled in special containers and clogged. Thermalization of various types allows producing baked milk and a number of other products containing live bifidobacteria.
It is also possible to produce long-stored milk derivatives, which contain exclusively the waste products of microorganisms.
Separation of the product and the production of cream
Quite often, the primary processing of milk on the farm involves the separation or separation of fat from the protein-watery mass.
The traditional method of settling in cold water causes the fat fraction to accumulate on the surface of the container, from where it is subsequently collected in the form of cream. At the same time, the milk retains from 0.5 to 1% of its fat content and can be used at home.
Modern separators almost completely separate the fat from the protein invert, keeping the fat content of the latter at the level of 0.05%. Flow-shop system of milk production involves the use of cream and skim milk to obtain drinking products with adjustable fat content and the content of protein elements.
In recent years, the number of people consuming low-fat milk and dairy products has increased significantly. This gives the necessary amount of protein mass and carbohydrates without the threat of provoking obesity. The use of cream fractions, pasteurized, sterilized, baked milk or skim milk allows you to create a mixture with the necessary fat content that meets the needs and requirements of various categories of the population.
This technology makes it possible to organize the production of drinking milk and cream, in which the fat content can reach 9% of the total mass and above.
Fat cream is much more valuable than the fat produced from them butter, because it contains a large amount of phosphates, polyunsaturated acids and other biologically valuable substances.
Making butter and sour cream
A plastic emulsion consisting of proteins, water and cow fat is very important. It is also obtained through the use of technology for the production of dairy products. Whipped cream in special butter churns change the structure of fat cells, which solidify, releasing a large amount of liquid.
On average, in the production of butter from 3.5 liters of cream with fat content of 30%, no more than 1 kg of high quality butter is obtained. Depending on the amount of fat, butter of various grades is divided into:
- unsalted (fat content - 82.5% / moisture - 16%);
- salt (81.5 / 16);
- amateur (78/20);
- peasant (72.5 / 25);
- a sandwich maker (61.5% / 35%).
In some cases, various ingredients may be added to the cream blends, including vegetable fats, sugar, salt, cocoa and flavorings, but such a product will no longer be considered butter.
Modern dairy technologies make it possible to get the sour cream with the necessary fat content, which requires adding a special leaven to the cream preheated to a temperature of +22 degrees Celsius and periodically stir the mixture. Within a day you will receive an excellent fermented milk product, the fat content of which will correspond to the fat content of the cream used. Long-term storage is provided by its pasteurization, although usually this method does not apply to sour cream.
Production of cheese, curd and curd masses
Cottage cheese is a product made using starter microorganisms of various types. The whey released as a result of the folding of the protein mass is removed in a subsequent stage.
The high content of amino acids and microelements perfectly assimilated by the human body makes cottage cheese and products made on its basis extremely valuable and useful.
At home and a small farm, making high-quality cottage cheese is very simple. To do this, in the pre-boiled, sterilized and cooled to room temperature cow's milk, add a little yogurt or yeast from any of the lactic acid cultures. After folding the mass, it is necessary to proceed to warming the mixture with constant stirring, without bringing it to a boil. When the protein flakes completely float to the surface they must be filtered from the whey.
The coefficient of fat curd depends on the original qualities. When using the product recovered from milk powder, a low-fat curd mass will be obtained.
In the conditions of a dairy or cheese factory, more modern technologies of primary processing of milk are used, which allow producing hard cheeses that meet the demands of the most demanding consumers of this product.
It should be borne in mind that modern milk production technologies make it possible to produce from it a whole range of high-quality whole, concentrated and reconstituted products that are very popular on the world market. According to experts, in the coming years, the demand for this type of dairy products will only grow.
The technology of production of powdered milk is developing very rapidly, and the growth rate of the production of cheese, cottage cheese and butter from cow's milk in the world has reached maximum levels.
Modern cattle breeding and the production technology of milk and beef imply the waste-free use of the products of its processing, from which a variety of calf substitutes are made, as well as protein bait for cattle and other domestic animals.
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