About pitfalls in growing cattle


Animal breeding is the oldest human activity, in particular, the activity of raising cattle in Russian conditions has become very popular. First of all, this applies to cows, it is not by chance that since ancient times, the Russian people have used the epithet "nurse" in relation to them. Lesson is quite profitable, but income will be possible only if the right approach to the organization of the case. On the "pitfalls" in the organization of the popular business will tell our article.

High-quality training - the key to future success

Before you start breeding cows, you should organize and conduct - this is a qualitative and thorough market research. Each region has its own specifics of activities in this area, it is necessary to study the situation, analyze the pricing policy, the level of competition, as well as determine in advance the likely consumers of products and distribution channels.

In addition, it is important as soon as possible for yourself to determine the goals of breeding and raising cows. Cattle for meat, milk or a tribe have their own specifics. Accordingly, the preparation should take into account the initial orientation of the business.

The production process is of great importance in the field of cow breeding. Here it is important to choose the territory for your complex, select the necessary building materials, think over the technical equipment. In addition, it is necessary to immediately determine the maximum size of a cow herd, choose the most preferred breed of animals and competently approach the issue of choosing the working personnel of the farm.

All this unambiguously hints at the necessity of drawing up a business plan, thanks to which it will be possible to calculate initial expenses, make a forecast for making a profit and assess the profitability of the cow breeding process. This task is not simple, but the attitude towards cattle breeding should be appropriate, otherwise a profitable business in the future can bring only losses and fail.

Some aspects of landscaping

This factor is crucial in breeding cows, since it is impossible to achieve even any qualitative results without a normal arrangement of the territory even in theory. The area under the farm for cows should be of sufficient size, about 10 square meters should be allocated to one animal. m, and it concerns the content and breeding.

For storage of feed and various inventory for the care of cows should provide additional space. If the main task of the farm is meat production, then it is also desirable to provide a separate room for slaughtering and storage of semi-finished products. This will require considerable expenses both in the process of preparing the necessary documents and in the course of construction, so you should take into account your possibilities, first of all, financial ones.

Arrangement and equipment of the barn

For the barn also matters not only the availability of a sufficient number of square meters, but also the completeness of its equipment. The building should be reliably insulated and warm; care should also be taken to ensure that excessive moisture, precipitation, and drafts that may severely harm the health of cows do not enter the interior.

It is necessary to provide the structure with drinking bowls and feeders for cows, a system of purification from sewage and heating during the cold season. High-quality and full-fledged farm operation is impossible without communication systems, which include not only heating, but also electricity, water supply and sewerage.

An important aspect of breeding cows will be the issue of waste disposal. It is great if there is an opportunity to do it on one’s own territory, but if not, then the prospect of cooperation with agrarian complexes in the region should be considered, all the more so since it can bring small, but still profit.

About the right choice of breed

In the question of the choice of breed of cows there is an enviable variety. There are so many breeds of cattle that it may even be difficult to choose the most successful breeding option. In this case, the following breeds of cows should be recommended:

  • Aberdeen-Angus - excellent reproduction and resistance to climate change, demonstrates stable and qualitative growth;
  • Limousine - excellent endurance and productivity, high fertility rates and unpretentious content;
  • Kalmyk - the ability of cows to gain weight quickly, which is especially good for meat breeding, is very popular in Russia;
  • Salers - unpretentious in content, very prolific and adapts well, suitable for breeding meat and milk;
  • Hereford is very popular all over the world, it grows quickly and is very productive, capable of acclimatization in a variety of conditions;
  • Simmental - an excellent choice for meat and dairy breeding, a characteristic feature of a cow is a high level of profitability of its content;
  • Sharolezskaya - intensive growth, quickly gaining weight and refers to the meat type.

With all the variety of choices among these breeds of cows, good breeding performance can only be achieved if the animals are properly and properly kept.

The nuances of the purchase of livestock

Whatever breed the owner of the farm chooses, it should be understood that purebred cows will demonstrate the highest performance indicators. To expect that half-breeds, especially those bred by incest, will show large yields or weight gain, does not make sense.

That is why, if the task is to carry out the breeding of cows as a business, it is necessary on the issue of acquisition to apply to proven nurseries or large reputable farms with a good reputation.

First, the purity of the breed in cows is monitored there and is being kept under control. Secondly, the animals will be healthy and ready for full breeding.

Two main approaches are applicable to the purchase of cows: you can buy for breeding already adult individuals (but by no means old ones) or purchase young stock for the purpose of its subsequent rearing.

In the latter case, you have to deal with a greater share of risk, because you will have to wait at least a year for the cow to reach its nominal indicators of productivity. Do not forget that not all calves will grow productive heifers.

Features of selection of livestock

The average lifespan of a cow is about 15-20 years. High milk yield while the cow shows in the interval between 3 and 13 years. She can also go through 10-12 annual calving sites in her life. The highest milk rates are between 4 and 8 years old. The most profitable solution would be to take a young calf, which already had at least one childbirth.

The last calving in a cow's life becomes a signal about the loss of milk, respectively, it becomes useless to keep such a representative of cattle for business purposes. It also does not make sense to give it to meat because of its rigidity. Therefore, the most rational solution would be to send a cow to sausage.

In order not to become the owner of the old cow, one should pay attention to a number of nuances, in particular, to the horns of the animal. For each year of life, one bezel appears on them, which it is easy for a specialist to distinguish. Their optimum number is from 3 to 6, if it is more, then there is no sense in buying such a cow.

Approximate calculation of investments

The volume of financial investments will depend on the number of cows, their pedigree, the presence or absence of automatic life support systems for the herd, the equipment of the territory, as well as on the possibility of growing their own feed. The latter aspect is of paramount importance, since a significant proportion of the expenditures is accounted for precisely in feed for cows in the process of their breeding.

As an example, consider a fairly typical situation. The herd is planned in 10 cows, its forage base is not, they should be purchased. The average price of a cow in a Russian nursery is about 50 thousand rubles. This aspect may vary depending on seasonality and a number of other moments, but it is hardly worth laying in the amount of less than half a million rubles.

Now about the feed for cows. In this matter, seasonality is even more important. If we are talking about winter, you should take care of the feed and hay. In autumn, it is advisable to replace the first one with fruits and vegetables. When pasture walking one animal should spend at least one bucket of vegetables per day. If there is a lot of grass and it is juicy, then fertilizing can be slightly reduced.

The cost of building the barn is highly dependent on the selected building materials, features of the internal architecture of buildings and a number of other aspects. This should be added to the acquisition of equipment, as well as hiring staff to service the farm and breeding cows. The approximate level of initial investment will be about 1-1.5 million rubles. For larger farms, this figure will naturally be even higher.

Aspects requiring additional attention

The activity of any enterprise should have proper legal registration, but in the case of a livestock farm, things are not so simple. No, of course, all documents should be issued in accordance with the current legislation and you need to conduct your activities only in the legal field. The nuance here is when to officially register IP, at a very early stage or only later?

Technically, everything should be done at a very early stage, since it will make life easier for the entrepreneur in the development of his farm. The problem is that the status of a farmer or an individual entrepreneur at this stage is unprofitable, the enterprise has not yet arrived.

The way out may be receiving subsidies from the state. It is possible to receive a considerable amount of support for farming, up to one and a half million rubles. If the income in the first year of operation of the farm does not exceed 40 thousand, then the tax does not need to be paid, in accordance with the provisions of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation.

Recommendations for the sale of its products

Regardless of which technology is used for growing cows, and which are put at the forefront of the goal, care should be taken to sell the products.

If there is not so much capital, then we can limit ourselves to simply selling meat and milk. This is not very profitable, but it does not require large investments. But for the sale of cottage cheese will need a separator. For the production of stew, you need to take care of creating a canning line. Yes, it will bring more profit, but first you need to incur certain expenses.

The easiest way is to deliver your products to the factory. You only need to have a certificate stating that the cows are healthy. If the task is to increase profits, it is rational to open your store for sale. But this means a different legal framework, as well as a more complex form of reporting.

Factors that can not be ignored

Finally, the question of the right place for the functioning of the enterprise is important. The products are distinguished by the fact that they deteriorate rather quickly, therefore, convenient travels are needed in the immediate vicinity of the farm. If they are not there, then they will have to attend to the issues of appropriate equipment, in particular, refrigeration equipment.

It is also desirable that the veterinary service is located near the farm, otherwise help may not be in time with all the ensuing unpleasant consequences. Cows can be subject to various diseases, epidemics are especially dangerous. The spread of disease in the herd can cause its complete death.

The situation looks less problematic than with pig breeding. The state strictly controls issues of keeping and breeding cattle, and also takes all necessary measures in a timely manner. And yet, additional insurance is clearly not redundant and will allow the owner to save the herd and not incur significant losses.

You should also think about the place for the burial of animals. A factor will be the availability of pasture and watering for cows. The countryside is best suited for this, urban suburbs are not very suitable for cattle breeding on a large scale.

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