Frisky American trotter - one of the fastest breeds in the world. It is also called the standardbred horse, which, translated from English, means "introduced according to the standard." And the "standard" in this case does not imply the exterior data of a thoroughbred stallion, but its speed qualities. After all, the main selective feature of American trotters is speed. The history of origin, exterior and other characteristics of these horses, we describe in this article.
Origin of Standard Bred
The American trotter was bred at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries with the help of reproductive crossbreeding (the goal of such crossbreeding is to obtain a new breed combining the best qualities of the original species).
English thoroughbred trotters, Norfolk, American, Anglo-Arab and Dutch trotters, as well as Canadian and local horses participated in its creation.
The American trotters gained official status in 1871. It was then that the first Tribal Book was created. The modern name standardbred horse received in 8 years.
Ancestor and other ancestors
It is believed that standard horse horses have one ancestor - the dark bay trotter Gambletonian X. The stallion is descended from the grandson of Messenger and daughter Belfounder - the Norfolk European trotter. Subsequently, he received two thousand foals from him, so most of the current American pacemakers and trotters have direct family ties with him.
An important influence on the selective qualities of the new breed was also made by horses involved in running sports on the racetrack. So, an English thoroughbred stallion named Messenger gave hundreds of horses with a frisky trotting run. The Anglo-Arabian horse, nicknamed Justin Morgan (the progenitor of the breed of the same name) secured this important feature.
"Americans" in Russia
At the end of the 19th century, the Orlov trotter was considered the fastest in Russia. But after the importation of horses of the standardbred breed for competition, it turned out that they surpass the Russian Oryol in speed.
Local horse breeders thought that if you cross two unique varieties, you’ll have a Russian trotter with unprecedented speed. A batch of stallions was brought back from the USA and started breeding. The “Americans” nicknamed Alvin, Bob Douglas, General H.
After that, trotters of American origin were not imported into the country for a long time. By 1966, the breeders again decided to raise the agility of Russian trotters and brought another batch. A stallion named Low Hannover had the best effect on the local breed.
However, the next generation did not give the same high-spirited and speedy characteristics, so the breeders brought another batch of standardbred horses for crossing with the Russian trotter. This delivery was final, determining the best characteristics of the Russian trotter.
Appearance and characteristics
American trotters are ambiguous in their exterior. There are both elegant and sophisticated individuals, and muscular.
Modern trotters are not large, with a firm and strong torso. The chest, the back is powerful, wide, and the metacarpus is short. The croup is well developed. Sometimes it is lowered down a bit, which is considered a deviation from the norm, a disadvantage.
The muscles are dry, the legs are hard, the gait is light, graceful. There are no restrictions on height, height can vary from 140 to 160 cm. Length - about 157 cm, girth of the sternum - up to 180 cm, metacarpus - up to 19.2 cm.
The color of the American trotter is mainly bay, brown and red. Less common black, gray or completely black. White spots on the body - a rarity. Such and gray individuals do not participate in breeding.
Morals and other features
The American trotter has strong immunity, endurance and quick adaptation to any climatic conditions.
By the nature there are different horses. Some individuals, despite the agility, docile, calm and kind. They easily make contact with people, balanced in stressful situations. Others show a temper, self-will, aggression. Negative qualities are eliminated from an early age with the help of proper dressing. This is explained below.
In America, the fastest representatives of the breed are horses from Kentucky and Pennsylvania. Such indicators are associated with heredity, climatic conditions and methods of training.
The breed is considered early ripening; foals develop over a period of four years.
Horses of this breed can run and trot and amble. To distinguish a pacer from a trotter, just look at his back. The first one is shorter. At the same time, an experienced trainer can train a horse to one or another type of gait.
Lines, selection and cost
American trotters are divided into three lines:
- Volomite, born in 1926. Two grandsons: Stars Pride and Noble Victory;
- Scotland, born in 1925. Son Huth Mon and grandson Speedster;
- Askworthy, born in 1892. Grandson Floriken became the successor of the genus.
Pacers are usually divided into other lines: the descendants of Direct, Abidale, Nibla Hannover and his son - Knight Dream.
In Russia, the majority of purebred representatives of the breed are descended from the speed trotter Scott Crown and his son Praks.
Modern selection for competitions occurs by definition of the fastest stallions. Their age, career on the hippodrome, endurance is taken into account. These criteria determine the prize horse for further participation.
In our country there are several horse-breeding factories where they are engaged in breeding standardbred horses. They are located in the Lipetsk, Kazan, Perm, Krasnodar, Oryol and other areas. It is there that you can buy a stud stallion that meets all the requirements. Its cost starts from 150,000 rubles.
In breeding a standard horse, important criteria are speed, speed and selective qualities. For procreation, stallions are selected that meet all requirements.
It is very important to follow all the rules of cultivation. If you miss the moment, the stallions later lose their playfulness. Therefore, experienced coaches have been working with them since birth. From the main equestrian enterprise, they begin to sell them in private clubs and stables at the age of six months.
Pacers and trotters are trained in special stadiums. At the age of two years, a horse must pass 1609 meters (mile) in no more than 2 minutes and 25 seconds - the result for amblers, and 2 minutes 30 seconds - for trotters. If the stallion can not overcome the track at the desired speed, it is removed from training and never take to the racetrack, so as not to degrade the frisky quality.
In order for a horse to win in all competitions, it is important to ensure it has the correct schedule. Feeding by the clock, clean and comfortable pen, trainings at the racetrack, balanced classes.
The main thing for herbivores is a lot of time in the open air, on pastures, where there is a lot of pasture food. In an additional diet there is straw, peas, cereals, beans, chaff (ears, stalks and other waste after threshing), oats, as well as root crops, tubers.
Not least is the sequence of taking food. First of all there is straw and hay, only after them juicy fruits, grain, greens. The general diet is divided into three parts, one large and two small. More than half is given for the night, and the other two are divided into morning and afternoon.
For perfect health after eating, the stallions are allowed to rest for two hours. Feed them at the same time. So the food is absorbed and does not cause discomfort, and the body produces the necessary amount of energy. Food juices are produced at a certain time, without incurring a trotter during training at the racetrack or competitions.
Breeders who grow healthy, fast and hardy horses know that water is the main source of energy. Give pets to drink at least three times a day.
Also important is the cleanliness in the stall, feeding trough and watering. Unsanitary conditions adversely affect the overall health of the herd. Outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as salmonellosis, gastrointestinal disorders, and helminthiasis, are not excluded.
Features training American trotters
Stallions with an unbalanced and aggressive character need special training. Bringing such a pet to the racetrack, the breeder carefully monitors his emotional state. The fact is that in such trotters over-stimulation of the nervous system prevails over inhibitory reactions. Because of this, they are frantic, which can lead to serious injuries.
Breeders consider these facts and treat all horses in stalls with caution. An unbalanced standardbred stallion starts kicking when food is brought in, so these individuals are fed first.
The same thing happens during the departure, combing, harnesses. They give bread or a juicy root crop, and while the horse is eating, carry out all the necessary procedures. Thus, she develops a conditioned reflex of calm behavior and is easier to train.
Horse trotters are unique in nature. Many key historical moments and interesting facts are connected with them.
The highest award for trotters - "Gambletonian", the name was determined in honor of the ancestor of all American trotters.
The absolute record holder of the beginning of the 21st century is Pine Chip, who covered a distance of one mile in 1 minute 51 seconds. Won the prize "Gambletonian".
The best representative of the breed, born in Russia, is the stallion Mastout. A short distance of 2 thousand 400 meters, he ran for 3 minutes 2 seconds.
The most famous representatives of the breed were sold at auction: Mystic Park - for 5.5 million dollars and Annekeleitor - for 19 million dollars.
One stallion named Sharif Danser - the son of two champions, the owner sold for $ 40 million. But the horse did not meet expectations and did not win a single competition.
American trotters do not set records in Europe. This is due to the cold and humid climate on the Eurasian mainland. The horse's breathing is interrupted, the lungs become clogged with moisture, and the cold causes pain during inhalation.
The American breed of trotters does not brag about a beautiful exterior, since when it was bred, breeders sacrificed their appearance for high speed.
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