Currently, the breeding of cattle for profit is distributed in three areas - dairy, meat and dairy-meat. These are natural foods that are in demand. To start such a business, you need to equip the premises, select the necessary breeds of animals, determine sales channels, and select employees. And this is only a small part of all cases. Let us consider in more detail all the stages of activity, as well as the pros and cons of each of the three areas.
Registration and start of activity
The first is monitoring the market. It is necessary to understand whether it really makes sense to start a business. At this stage, the possibilities and needs of the region are being clarified. The presence of future competitors is necessarily examined and, if possible, they should be removed. Distribution points may be small trading places, meat processing plants and dairies. They are considered, both local and in the nearest settlements. If everything is in order with this, it is imperative to issue an individual entrepreneur status. Despite the fact that the business starts its way from home, everything should be legal. This means compliance with formalities and mandatory documentation. To reduce the taxation of IP is issued on the code "animal husbandry".
It will be a plus to establish contacts with persons who will interact with the future farm - veterinarians. Their work is no less important, because it is necessary help, vaccinations and much more.
It is necessary to decide in which direction work will be organized. This may be breeding bulls for meat at home or keeping cows for dairy products, as well as combined, that is, sales of meat and milk. Some farmers act in the direction of raising and trading calves, which also has benefits.
In any case, you need to start with a business plan for breeding cows. We wrote more about this in the article “Drawing up business plans for a farm”.
The area for breeding cattle should be chosen very carefully. It is necessary to choose the appropriate livestock sizes and conditions. If the site is small relative to the number of heads, then there is a risk of quick contamination. At this stage, the herd size is determined. In general, the whole farm plan is established, which should include a barn, pasture, various outbuildings and barns, warehouses for feed.
Breeding cows at home as a business means that the future farmer has a plot of land. If not, then you can rent some vacant areas and premises. You can also start building on the ground from scratch, if financial opportunities allow.
The territory of the pen for cattle is determined at the rate of 10 sq.m. on one head. If there is grazing in a pasture, then in this case for one cow you will need about 1 hectare of land. It should be noted that you need to stock up on hay for the winter, and this is plus one hectare. For all buildings on the territory of the future farm will require at least 200 square meters. m
It is good when there are enterprises nearby that are engaged in the cultivation and marketing of grain crops and root crops. This is necessary to provide cows with quality products in terms of additional nutrition.
Cowshed and equipment
To breed cows as a business, you need to understand all the subtleties and start with a small number of heads for which you do not need large areas. You can always need to purchase additional cattle and complete the building. The best option is 10 goals. If there is a building that was a cowshed in the past, then this is ideal. For beginners, construction from scratch will be difficult both physically and in terms of collecting documentation. It is best to rent a room and make a suitable repair there.
It is necessary to prepare the barn in accordance with sanitary standards. This means that there are special requirements, which include the presence of a wooden floor with a straw bedding, a ceiling height of 2.4 m, feeders, drinkers, walls that are insulated with bundles of straw, as well as ventilation.
In the farm, future farmers necessarily need to stock up on various equipment - these are shovels, pitchforks, buckets, overalls, containers, scales. In the process you need to buy a car designed for the delivery of products. It will be a plus to purchase a mini-tractor, with the help of which hay harvesting, manure harvesting and various other economic matters will be carried out.
Arrangement of premises
Breeding and raising calves and caring for cows can be done in separate boxes, in rooms with thick bedding, or in a room without a leash, but with flooring for rest. If we take the presence of ten heads of cattle as a basis, then an acceptable building will be 34 meters by 6 meters. One cow should be allocated 2 square meters. m. When animals are not many stalls are built for them.
The technique of breeding cattle involves the mandatory cleaning of the barn from contamination. Often, buildings are built with a special housing and room for manure. In a simpler version, you just need to change the stained straw litter to a clean one. It is either disposed of in personal territory, or sold as fertilizer.
The room should have enough windows, as well as a door to clean the boxes of manure. When breeding dairy cows, you need to think about purchasing a milking system and regular water supply. Feeders adapt different - from collective to personal. You can also equip them with a food delivery system.
Acquisition of animals
To start breeding cows as a business, you need to find a suitable farm that sells calves. This should be a reliable supplier who will provide healthy individuals. The best time for such a purchase is the end of winter or the beginning of spring. The payback of a business depends on the types of animals purchased. This may be purebred bulls and cows, or mongrel. There are special nurseries that monitor the purity of the breed. These cows are able to give good milk and significantly gain weight. The output is only quality products.
Starting a business from scratch, it is best to form a small herd. In this case, you can purchase young stock from households. However, beginning farmers very often acquire adult cows, but not old ones. When drawing up a business plan for breeding cattle, it is advisable to work out both options and choose a profitable one. It must be remembered that the first option with young animals is rather troublesome and risky.
Apart from the fact that a calf needs some care, it is not clear which adult will grow and whether it will justify hopes. When purchasing a bull that is not one month old, it is necessary to feed it with milk. Up to 10 liters are required per day. If there is no dairy cow in the property, then it is financially costly. The purchase of dry mixes and other related products is also an investment, and the animal may not get the required weight. Buying a calf is better at the age of one month and above.
In the second variant it is also possible to be mistaken, since they can sell the old cow. If you plan to dairy farm, then you need to take responsibility, as the cow gives the maximum milk yield in the period from 3 to 13 years.
So, when at the initial stage of building a business, it is decided that the farm should act to obtain milk and dairy products, it is necessary to acquire good cows. This technique of breeding cattle is quite capable of a beginner.
Selecting the required number of cows for milk, you need to choose pedigree highly productive individuals. The presence of such heads is in Russian breeding factories. Most Popular:
- Black-and-white is considered very common and occupies almost 50% of the total dairy population. It is able to produce about 5500-5800 kg of milk per year;
- Holstein breed was bred in 1970-80s and in one milk yield it is obtained from 30 kg of milk, and per year, an average of 7400 kg;
- Kholmogorskaya is considered an old breed and is capable of producing up to 8,000 kg of milk per year with good feeding. But the average can be considered 4000-6000 kg.
If a novice farmer purchases animals from a breeder, he must provide documents and veterinary certificates.
When choosing a cow suitable for milk yield, you need to pay attention to the structure and shape of the animal. As mentioned above, age matters. The older the animal, the less milk it will give. The number of years is determined by the horns. They count the number of lines, rollers and to this figure add another two years. Thus, it turns out the exact age.
The number of calving also affects productivity. The greatest gains are after third genera. It is best for business to acquire cows after the first calving.
Animals for meat
Breeding bulls and cows for meat is not less profitable. Cattle meat should be prone to rapid weight gain, to have the suitability of products, female individuals are able to calve each year.
When choosing animals and breeding them, the breed is of great importance. Especially important is the time during which the calf will be able to gain the desired weight. Still different types of animals may vary in taste of meat. The rapidly growing meat breeds include Charolais, Kazakh white-headed, Simmental, Hereford. It will be cheaper to buy newborn calves, but this is burdensome in terms of feeding. The best way to breed gobies at home is to buy individuals that can eat food and grass.
Of course, every newcomer in farming is interested in finding out why the above-mentioned breeds of cattle are bred for meat. Almost all of them have a low percentage of salting product. This means that the fat content of such meat will be minimal. However, the mass buildup is rather short. If we consider the Hereford breed, then it has a rather calm temperament and excellent taste. Kazakh white-headed and Sharolese can safely tolerate local climate and temperature extremes. In this regard, they are very hardy. If the Simmental cow is both dairy and meat, then the Kazakh white-headed milk production is rather low.
Breeding gobies for meat as a business requires high-quality maintenance and care. In the warm season, they need a daily walk. Constantly keeping such individuals in the stall is not recommended, although they gain weight very quickly. This method makes them aggressive and contributes to various diseases.
The arrangement of the paddock involves costs for the novice farmer. Accordingly, he must arrange the right place for walking, which must be kept clean. With this method, the beef turns out very good quality. If the number of heads is quite impressive, then most likely you will need helpers in the household. The recruitment and salary clause for it should be considered at an early stage and when building a business plan.
If you still choose the method of keeping the bulls on a leash, then you need to take care of high-quality equipment, as they can be aggressive. In the stall, individuals must be well secured. On the other hand, this method allows to assess the condition of the animal, to make various measurements, veterinary examinations.
Breeding gobies as a business for the production of meat products in the conditions of the pen requires less cost than a stall. One of the reasons for this conclusion is that you need far fewer employees to work.
Combined method of breeding
The maintenance and breeding of cattle at home for a novice farmer can be combined. This means that in the herd there will be individuals for both meat and milk production. There are mixed breeds of cows bred by breeders and ready for both purposes.
Such universal breeds as Simmental, Lebedinsk, Schwyz, Red Gorbatov and Kostroma will be suitable for business. All of them are able to achieve a large body mass, and females give milk yield on average from 3,000 to 5,000 kg per year. For slaughter almost every breed is able to produce from 50% of the weight. The growth of calves is quite active and by half a year they weigh quite impressively.
All listed animals have high taste indices of meat and dairy products. For a successful business, this is a clear plus.
This is an equally important stage of business. Having decided on what kind of products should be output - meat or milk - the farmer needs to implement it.
If the farm is directed to the breeding and cultivation of meat heads, then after the acquisition of young stock, the meat will be already in about a year. Dairy cows give milk constantly, with the exception of time for calving. You can also deliver related products. These are skins, jelly (cheese, butter, kefir, sour cream), meat semi-finished products. At the beginning of the article mentioned and such a direction as the marketing of young animals. With the ability to organize the cultivation of calves, it can be an additional profit.
Any of the goods, whether milk or meat, can be sold wholesale or retail. Many processors often work with farms. It is also possible to conclude an agreement with catering and shops. Guided by the main advantage - environmental cleanliness of products - you need to build quality sales of products.
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