Thanks to the policy of innovation and the industrialization of agriculture, cattle farms feed distributors are becoming good assistants to livestock producers. The use of such technology allows to increase the profitability of production and to obtain maximum milk yield of milk of good density and fat content. The range of units for feeding cows is quite large. The right choice of technical equipment, taking into account the needs of a single farm, will allow saving feed mixtures, fuel, electricity.
Classification of feed machines
For feeding cattle on farms, it is increasingly not manual labor that is used, but specialized aggregates. They are able to distribute green grass, silage, hay from one or two sides of the feeder. By the type of distribution of the feed mixture, the feeding equipment is divided into one- or two-sided.
To meet the various needs of livestock farms, mobile and stationary units have been invented, distributing the feed mixture to cows. Installation of stationary devices produced in specialized areas, farms. Such equipment has the form of long conveyors that move the feed around the perimeter of the room. Among stationary cattle feeders for cattle are distinguished:
- tape (recesses, which are formed by a special tape on the rollers);
- scraper (chain-scraper conveyors are installed inside the concrete gutter);
- troso-washers (a cable with attached washers moves inside the pipe and delivers the feed to the feeders);
- platform (conveyor, dispensed dispensing feed mixtures).
The main advantage of stationary feeding devices is the ease of installation in private households and small farms, as well as simple construction.
The principle of operation of devices
Mobile feed dispensers are mobile devices having the appearance of a cart and a hopper for feeding feed (dry or succulent). Such units are moved around the territory of the livestock complex with the help of a tractor or a car. Practice shows that the feed house (the room where animal feed is prepared and mixed) is located separately from the place where the cows eat. Therefore, there is a need for such mobile devices.
Some farms engaged in breeding dairy cows, acquire mobile distributors, mixers, whose function is not only the delivery of feed resources to the feeders, but also the preliminary mixing of feed. Such units are serviced by the operator using the remote control or levers, and are powered with electricity through a flexible wire. When using automated technology for feeding cattle, the consumption of feed loss is reduced to 10%, and milk yield increases to 1000 liters per month from each cow.
On cattle farms, hook-on feed bin dispensers with tractor drive of the power take-off shaft are quite popular. For convenient movement of the tractor from the feed mill to the feeders, it is necessary to provide high-quality access to them (the cover must be firm and the feed pass from 2.2 m).
In large livestock farms, the Tractor Universal Tractor Feed Dispenser (KTU-10) has proven itself well. Intra-ferry shipments occur most often along the route: "feed shop - feeding", "feed shop - summer playground for livestock." The distances are small, the cyclic performance does not directly depend on the distance traveled, but on the time the distributor is under loading. Mechanical loaders increase the efficiency of use of feeding facilities.
Technical characteristics of KTU-10
The main components of the machine: brake, electrical and chassis, as well as a device that distributes food and drive and the bottom.
The distribution of feed depends on the forward speed of the device itself and the intensity of movement of the conveyor belt. The lifting capacity of the tractor feed device is 3500 kg, the bunker is no more than 10 m3 in size, the wheel track is 1.6 meters.
The process of preparing mixed feed mixtures
Kormotsekh is the specialized room in the territory of a farm intended for preparation of fodder mixes. Comprehensive mechanization provides the processing of the necessary feed resources (tops, straw, hay and other plant waste) and allows you to prepare balanced feed.
Prepared feed mixtures for cows must comply with all animal husbandry standards:
- humidity - in the range of 65-80%;
- uniformity of composition;
- the temperature for feeding livestock is + 20 degrees in summer and + 40 degrees in winter;
- the balance of dietary supplements, stimulants, microelements, antibiotics, vitamins;
- high-quality raw materials without foreign impurities and mold.
The presence of a feed mill on a farm for breeding cows reduces the cost of feed mixtures through the use of its own resources (waste plants, grass, branches). For high profitability of cattle it is important to monitor the diet of animals, good ventilation, cleanliness of food and stalls. To protect the feed table for the cow from animal penetration, feed grates are used. This simple device helps to reduce the loss of feed from scattering up to 10%.
Farm mechanization - a pledge of profit
Changing the feed supply system in farms is justified for several reasons. Firstly, the complexity of the process is reduced. Secondly, cattle feeding is faster. Third, the loss of feed resources is reduced. And finally, the money spent on the purchase of equipment, quickly pay off.
New technologies make it easier for livestock breeders. Fodder cooked in feed shops, are easily digestible, balanced. And in the aggregate, high animal productivity, excellent quality of the products obtained, and good milk volumes are achieved.
The advantages of introducing modern feed dispensers for cattle farms are obvious.
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