The usual mark on the body of a cow or other animal is an integral part of strict zootechnical accounting on farms. The need for tagging of cattle (cattle) appeared at the earliest stages of the development of animal husbandry. Then his goal was one thing - to provide recognition on the principle of "friend or foe." Over time, the label became more informational, which required not only its uniqueness, but also protection from counterfeit, manufacturability.
Tagging in modern animal husbandry
Tagging on modern farms is a mandatory and major event in the framework of zootechnical accounting. An individual number for calf, piglet and other newborn farm animals is assigned immediately after birth. This is one of the first measures, along with the assignment of the name-nickname, associated with the need to:
- distinguish between animals and their inventory;
- monitor the health of individuals, keep statistics, for example, by weight, height, feed, milk quantity;
- encrypt individual data for analysis;
- register insemination, examination and treatment of animals;
- plan feed consumption;
- to consolidate the genetic properties of individuals during selection.
Tagging in large and small farms carried out by choosing different methods. Each of them has its own nuances, pros and cons.
This is one of the traditional and oldest methods of labeling. For example, the ancient nomads burned a special sign - a brand, sometimes even in the form of a family coat of arms, on the thighs of their horses. It is still common practice to use red-hot iron for branding, especially in beef cattle. Farmers using special tools cauterize the cow's body with metal blanks in the form of a set of numbers, forming the individual number of the animal.
In dairy farming, experts prefer to use cold stamping. The label is obtained as a result of frostbite of a small area of skin in which the destruction of cellular elements responsible for hair pigments occurs. Because of this, the coat grows colorless - white. Tagging is done in this case with the help of liquid nitrogen, in which the metal number is immersed and then applied to the cow.
An individual code with this method does not appear immediately - after about 2 weeks. This method is fairly simple and less painful. It can be cauterized with nitrogen in order to obtain local alopecia. This is achieved with severe frostbite.
For adult members of the cattle, tagging with a horn stamp is used.
Tagging in tribal accounting
Tagging as well as branding is referred to as simple tagging methods.
Special demand tags for the ears with the presence of a special applicator. Auricle area - the upper edge of the animal's ear is punched by an applicator that automatically secures the tag. The needle is disposable.
Cattle tagging is a popular animal labeling method.
Tags are used single or double - depending on the tasks of zootechnical accounting, of different colors, sizes and shapes - square, triangular, round.
Eartamps for cattle are now made from thermoplastic polyurethane.
Polyurethane, widely used for the production of ear tags, does not cause allergic reactions and irritation on the skin of animals.
However, tagging has a significant minus - calves or adults can break the decals. Collars and nose rings can also serve as the basis for label tags.
Plucking as a tagging method
This method consists of cutting out pieces of skin on the ears in the form of "codes" corresponding to the numbers (Ivanov's key). For example, a tweezer made on the upper edge of the right ear means the number 1, the left - 10. The number of the animal is obtained as a result of the addition of numbers on both ears. Plucking can be done with ordinary scissors or a special tool.
The tweezers may be different in shape - round or oblong. They are made in an area of the ear where the least number of blood vessels is observed.
The pinch must be deep, otherwise it will quickly grow. The place of this small operation is necessarily treated with iodine. Tagging with tweezers is becoming less common. The individual number with this method is difficult to read, and the procedure for applying it to an animal is very painful.
Chipping technology can be applied to all types of farm animals. The label on the body of the cow, or rather, in its body, is obtained through the introduction of a microchip. This method is called the most reliable and modern. It has the following advantages:
- the procedure is completely painless;
- can not be lost or forged;
- retains a unique code throughout the life of the individual.
Tagging when chipping will require a chip-electronic device with a 15-digit code, an implanter with which it is inserted under the skin (a replaceable needle or syringe), as well as a reader (scanner).
Chip recognition can be carried out from a distance of up to 30 cm, the encoded information is transmitted to the computer. According to them, all information about the animal is read, including date of birth, mass, name, and nickname.
When chippings of cattle are recommended to enter the chips in the lower third of the neck to the right or in the upper part of the neck behind the ear. At introduction it is necessary to observe disinfection measures.
In the Russian Federation, since 2011, the draft law on compulsory chipping of domestic animals has been discussed. This practice has long been used in the United States and Europe, where they chip even children for safety purposes.
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