Competently built animal farm is the dream of any professional breeder. The state of health of the livestock directly depends on how comfortable the conditions will be. Requirements for landscaping facilities are quite large, but this fact is filled by the fact that with proper care, the overall productivity of livestock increases and a person makes a profit. In this article it will be described what kind of premises for cows are available, the types of structures being erected and the characteristics of materials for their production are described.
Basic technical requirements for buildings
The main reason for the fundamental importance of the choice is that the vital activity of a cow is directly dependent on the ambient temperature. Animals can not stand the stuffiness and cold. The optimal rate varies from 8 to 10 degrees above zero. However, in summer this is difficult to achieve, so the norm during this period is + 20-25 degrees. These conditions will be achieved only if you correctly build sheds.
The erection of a cow house must be carried out according to a strictly defined technical regulation. The basic rules include the following:
- the building should not be located near the premises. The minimum distance is 15 m.
- near the barn is not advised to contain drinking water. This is done in order to prevent the ingestion of animal feces into the liquid. It is important to move the typical animal house away from sources at least 20 m.
- when drafting the premises, it is recommended to think in advance about the issues of lighting, heating and ventilation of the future building
- the dimensions of the shed should correspond to the physiological needs of the animals. Cows need to periodically move and move.
In addition to the above, it is very important to choose environmentally friendly materials for future construction, which will not harm the life and health of the animal. Such raw materials include brick, saman, and all types of wood.
The foundation is considered the most important element for any type of construction. To the attention of farmers are offered tape, monolithic and columnar species. The choice is made on the basis of what size the erected building will be.
For example, a small shed of wood will withstand even the budget pillar view of the reinforcing surface, and a monolithic or strip foundation will be suitable for a brick construction.
In the overwhelming number of cases, a large barn is built by professional breeders, since in such a room it is quite problematic to adjust the lighting and comfortable microclimate for animals.
In the process of laying the foundation should pay attention to the fact that the barn must be equipped with liquid collectors, which will receive urine and animal manure. The bottom side of the design slope should be at least 15 cm, and the optimum width can reach 30 cm.
Regardless of the size of a typical building, the liquid with waste is changed no less than once in 25-30 days.
First of all, the farm animals must meet the physiological needs of the population. For walking the cows need a large space. The best indicator is from 500 m and above.
It is very important to keep a large barn clean, so breeders need to carefully select material for laying the floor. Construction elements must be durable and withstand strong mechanical pressure. The most common raw material is:
Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, so before the final selection of raw materials for the construction of a standard design, you should weigh the pros and cons.
Concrete floor in the facility where livestock lives, considers practical, but can harm animals. The fact is that the surface is very cold and the consequences of keeping a cow in such conditions often lead to arbitrary abortions in cows. In order to prevent such circumstances, breeders need to create an additional substrate with hay.
The undoubted advantage of the concrete floor with additional insulation is that animals that stand in such conditions do not need to build housing, the farmer will only have to periodically change the hay.
Warming can also be arranged using removable wooden boards. As a result of using this method, the shed will be easy to clean - it is enough just to wash the substrate well.
Wooden floor is definitely a good option for a mini-farm for cattle, because this material retains heat well and is considered environmentally friendly. A significant disadvantage of such a coating is that it absorbs odors and it is almost impossible to get rid of the “fragrances”. Wood is better suited for a small barn because it can crack when exposed to strong mechanical pressure. At the same time, separate parts of the floor are easily replaced with new ones.
When building a standard structure for the maintenance of cattle, it is necessary to pay close attention to the choice of material from which the walls will be made. To create a comfortable environment most often used the following types of raw materials:
- foam blocks;
The capricious cow does not tolerate cold, so the room should be warm even on the most severe winter day. As with the choice of floors, the breeder is advised to study the positive and negative aspects of all types of building materials, and only after that make a decision.
For small farms, a wooden barn would be an ideal option. Constructions are quickly constructed and, when individual parts of a small-sized wall are worn out, they are easy to replace. Wood retains heat well, is resistant to moisture and does not emit harmful substances into the environment.
The walls in the building, where cows live year-round, can be made of brick. This material is suitable for use in large buildings, as it is highly durable and does not absorb moisture. The only disadvantage of this choice is that such constructions will have to be additionally insulated with glass wool.
The issue of exploitation of barns from metal structures is quite controversial. The material, of course, is highly resistant to wind and moisture, but the heat inside the room does not save at all. Such facilities will need to be insulated from all sides, which will be very expensive.
Foam wall walls are ideal for cow houses. The above construction material keeps warm well, so additional insulation is not required. The only significant drawback is that the design is unstable to moisture and is not suitable for use in places where it often rains.
Virtually any farm animals equipped with structures, partly made of adobe. This fact is explained by the fact that this material is inexpensive and at the same time it is highly durable.
In addition, adobe is made from environmentally friendly raw materials and perfectly retains heat in the premises. It is for this reason that using this material for a cow will create a truly homely atmosphere. Animals in such a structure will feel good and will not freeze in winter.
In places where the cow lives, you can also lay out the floor of adobe. The only disadvantage of such a decision would be that cleaning the habitat of the cows would be quite problematic. But such a floor will not lead to frostbite of the animal and will withstand high mechanical pressure.
Summertime for cows
Summer is considered to be the most favorite season for breeders, because it is at this time that it is easiest for a cow. Another absolute advantage of the hot season is that cattle have free access to the fields where fragrant fresh grass grows.
In this case, the cows do not like the heat. From overheating, a Burenka can give less milk or even get sick. After a long stay in the open sun, even a spacious yard with a green lawn will not help the animal.
In order to preserve the health of heifers and bulls, special sheds are built for them, which, like barns, are equipped with pots and feed containers. Under the roofs of such structures, the animal feels comfortable.
Disputes about the name of the place where calves are kept do not subside. Some farmers call it a manger, others prefer the word "calf". Breeders are unanimous only that young animals are kept separately from adults.
A cow is kept with a calf for no more than 12 hours, after its birth, exactly as long as colostrum is released from the mother's udder. After the process of kneading the cows is started, the youngsters are sent to another place.
On some farms, calves are kept in a separate room with their peers. This building should be warm and bright. The disadvantage of this approach of farmers is that the weaker animals will be deprived of food and they may even need medical assistance.
Ideally, the calf is placed in a separate structure. Such a structure is small and it is convenient for the farmer to get close to the animal to take care of it.
In this article, some tips were published to cattle breeders regarding the arrangement of the places where the cow lives. If this information was useful for you, then be sure to share it with your friends.
If you know what else is called a dwelling for cows, then by all means write about it in the comments. Any additional information may be helpful.