Today, various systems and methods of keeping cattle. They affect the performance of the herd, meat and dairy products. The choice of systems and methods depends on the region in which the farm is located, the presence or absence of areas for walking, the state of the animal. There are tethered and loose-housing methods, as well as stall-grazing, stall-walking and current-shop systems. Consider them in more detail.
The advantage of binding animals
Keeping a cow in a tethered way without grazing implies restricting their movement. Cows are located in stalls with a locking device. They can lie down, stand and eat calmly. But in this case, communication with fellow tribesmen and all kinds of injuries are excluded. Today, long pavilions with feeding accessories are often used.
Additional fences are not required, since in this case the cows on farms are already limited in movement. On one individual you need about 2.5 square meters. m square. The excreta is removed to special rooms using manure collection equipment.
Such a content of dairy cows has several advantages:
- the cows receive a strictly rationed amount of feed;
- animals do not communicate with each other, therefore conflicts in the herd are excluded;
- it is easier to keep livestock records;
- easier to control the condition of animals, to carry out disease prevention;
- the productivity of cows becomes higher;
- feed costs are reduced.
But you need to take into account the minus of this method of keeping cows. Automation of work on the farm is limited, respectively, human costs are higher.
Features of the stray mode
The maintenance of cattle in the loose-fashioned way is most often used on a farm, where at least 400 individuals. The cow quietly walks through the pavilions and territories for walking.
With this technology content milking takes place in a separate room. The herd is in natural conditions, optimally suited to their physiological needs. The advantages of the method are as follows:
- increases productivity;
- there is no need to bring cattle to pasture;
- You can automate some processes.
It is important to take into account the cons. Thus, when keeping the manufacturing bulls in such conditions, there may be a danger to those around them. Especially in the presence of settlements nearby. Staff must be taught to work on the equipment. In addition, it is necessary to more often carry out veterinary and sanitary measures, to observe the hygiene of animals. Cows often interact with each other, which can cause severe stress. In addition, such conditions on the farm require an increase in the consumption of products.
You can read more in the article "On the loose housing content of cattle."
Cattle Keeping Systems
Now let's look at the cattle keeping systems. Conditions are selected depending on the climate and possibilities of the farm. With a stall-pasture system, animals are in the premises of the farm in winter, and graze in the meadow in summer. In the warm season, care and maintenance in grazing conditions facilitate the work of farmers. Cattle can eat grass without restrictions, but you need to give enough water and organize a canopy from the sun.
Systems and methods for keeping cattle on a farm include stalling conditions. In this case, the cattle is in the room, but it is expelled every day to special sites. In addition to the above methods, there is a flow-shop system. It is based on the division of the herd into groups: production, insemination, deadwood, birthing, and divisive.
In the question of how to keep a cow, it is necessary to take into account the veterinary and sanitary capabilities, dietary characteristics and the physiological needs of the herd. If the farm has large areas, there will be nothing better than grazing. This is useful for the reproductive function of cows. When the farm is located in a region with poor climatic conditions or there are no pastures near it, a stall system is used. You can read about it in the article "On the stall housing of cows".
Important things about bulls
Bulls on the farm require special treatment. They need to provide a separate stall and put there feeding tanks.
Keeping bulls includes tying individuals. Veterinary measures and zoohygiene should be carried out only by experienced professionals. When servicing animals, you need to remember that you can not be rude and raise your voice. The beast can be very dangerous for humans.
When feeding bulls for meat on the farm, it is necessary to regularly give them physical exertion. Even if practiced stall content. Otherwise, obesity may begin, and the cattle will show aggression. However, it is forbidden to bring bulls to pasture along with the rest of the herd. In no case should not allow the communication of two individuals in order to avoid eliminating conflict situations.
Improper maintenance of breeding bulls will negatively affect their potency.
Also worth noting is the cold content of cattle. It is used to grow a dairy calf and maintain adult cows. For two days after birth, the baby is located near the cow, after which it is transferred to a specially equipped room on the street. The advantage of this method is the ability to maintain a high level of veterinary-sanitary procedures. Accordingly, the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders of the body of the calf is practically excluded.
Adults around the clock are in rooms with a light structure, in which a ventilation system is installed. In winter, the pavilion is about 8-9 degrees warmer than outside. The room is heated by the heat that cows emit. Cattle can safely survive the cold to -20 ° C. Therefore, this temperature is quite enough for their normal life.
Veterinary rules of keeping
From March 31, 2017 new veterinary rules for cattle keeping came into force. So, in each farm you need to install fences so that wild animals of any classification could not get into the farm. When keeping livestock to obtain milk and meat, it is necessary to allocate a special room in which products will be temporarily stored.
According to the veterinary and sanitary requirements, at least once a year it is necessary to carry out pest control and disinfestation of the premises. It is also necessary to treat animals from blood-sucking parasites. The rules paid attention and content. So, if the loose method is practiced, then the herd needs to be grazed by gender and age groups.
In the table of contents of the veterinary rules there is also a paragraph about the average daily rate of food and water. In addition, they examine the clinical examination of the entire herd. This procedure is important from the diagnostic and preventive side. The maintenance of bulls and cows should include clinical examination for the timely detection of signs of the disease and their prevention.
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In the comments tell us about the systems used and how to keep the cows in your farm.