Calculating how much milk a cow gives per day and year is a key point for professional farmers and owners of small farmsteads who decide to breed cattle. This allows you to calculate the average costs and possible profits, which should correspond to the efforts applied for the maintenance. The misconception that an animal should produce the same amount of milk all year round is not common to the general public.
Why does a cow give milk
Like all members of the mammalian genus, these animals produce milk to feed their young, and without calving its appearance is impossible. Within six months after her birth, the chick is ready to independently carry out the calf. But no experienced livestock breeder would inseminate her, giving him the opportunity to grow a little more, to gain strength. The young body is not yet ready to full feeding. Early childbirth can lead to a painful condition and even to the death of a cow.
That is why the first insemination process takes place at the age of 1.5-2 years, when the animal is fully formed. Then it possesses sufficient forces for full-fledged childbirth and calf feeding.
After the birth of the baby, milk production starts from the first day, which at this stage is characterized by high fat content, and the many nutrients it contains (proteins, vitamins and lactose) contribute to the rapid build-up of muscle mass and the formation of a strong skeleton.
Lactose is a carbohydrate contained in the milk of an animal that gives a large amount of energy to the newborn and activates its growth process.
Sectional - the most important process
Some time after birth, the calf is taken from the mother and not allowed to go to the udder. If at this time milk is not removed from the mammary glands, it will burn out, and its production will stop completely. Knowing this, experienced breeders proceed to the distribution of the cow. With this approach, she first milks three or more times a day, which can significantly improve the performance of the animal and its milk yield.
According to experts, cow's milk in a fully filled udder retains its properties for up to 15 hours, after which its production stops. How many cows give milk per day depends on the frequency of milking. After the initial procedure, it is recommended to carry out two to three milks a day. Professional livestock breeders do this three times, thus stimulating its greater production.
First heifers give up to 10 liters per day, and milk production in more adult individuals can reach 25-40 liters. The milk production of cows depends on the breed of cattle, which, depending on the purpose of the content, are divided into: dairy, meat, meat and dairy.
Animals of each direction are very easy to distinguish among themselves. Dairy have a more developed belt of the hind limbs, a massive udder. They give a large amount of milk.
Meat breeds have a powerful shoulder girdle and a small udder. Meat and dairy breeds have an almost rectangular body structure, give an average amount of milk, but build up serious muscle mass.
What the annual milk yield depends on
Paradoxically, but in fact, no one specialist will give you a definite answer to the question of how many liters of milk a cow gives a year and for a lifetime. This question is individual. It depends on the characteristics and health of the individual. But there are some factors that allow to predict the performance of the animal:
- Belonging to a breed of cattle;
- age (A middle-aged cow produces more milk than a first-calf or old animal);
- varied diet (Constant consumption of juicy food and large amounts of water stimulates the formation of milk, which can give a cow);
- health status (A sick or tired animal must have reduced milk yield);
- Season of the year (Cows that settled in the autumn-winter season produce an average of 10% more milk than those with a calf in spring and summer. Scientists attribute this to the genetic memory of the animal, as well as the presence of succulent fodder in the summer).
The most famous breed of dairy cows
Depending on the area with which climate the farmer lives, and in what conditions he is going to contain cattle, you can choose one of the most popular breeds of dairy cattle.
Holstein breed - very large animals, the weight of animals can reach 700 kg. The breed was bred in the Netherlands specifically for high yields. In the Russian conditions it is contained exclusively on special farms, since it starts to hurt in open areas, losing productivity.
The black-and-white breed was bred in the USSR and is ideal for life in the climate of central Russia. It has a strong skeleton, reaches a weight of 400 kg.
The Kholmogory breed has a brown color with black spots, reaching a weight of 500 kg. She is perfectly adapted to life in the north-western regions of Russia. Differs in high performance and fat content of milk.
Red steppe breed is most common in Ukraine, South Ural, steppe regions of Russia. Cattle extremely unpretentious, well tolerate dry periods of the year. Animals can reach a mass of 400-500 kg.
Yaroslavl breed. Animals of black color, reach the weight of 500 kg, are capable to eat poorly low-calorie food, but give high milk yield.
Daily and annual milk yield
Immediately make a reservation that the data on how much milk a cow gives per day is relative. Any practicing livestock breeder can challenge them, pointing to their own calculations. Given this, we present averaged data on how much a cow produces milk. As mentioned above, they are directly dependent on the forage base and conditions of keeping cattle.
Approximately 1.5-2 months before the new calving should be reduced and stopped milking, giving the animal the opportunity to recover their strength.
UN statistics that are publicly available state that Israeli farmers, who earn 1702 liters per month, are confidently leading in terms of milk yield per cow.
Milk yield per cow in the USA is 802 l, in Denmark and Canada it is up to 726 l. Russia in this list of performance ranks eighth. Its farmers on average per month receive 410 liters of milk from one cow.
Until now, the holstein breed cow, which at the age of 20 years gave more than 211 tons of milk in 1985, is considered the record holder for milk yield. Although some experts put such figures into serious doubt. The record of Russia is owned by an animal of a black-and-white breed, which produced about 19 tons of milk per year.
How to choose cattle for your farm
If you decide to breed cattle to get milk, you need to be able to correctly identify the animal you need. The milk production of cows depends on various characteristics, the main ones of which are:
- the presence of a large udder with prominent veins;
- straight, strong legs, as well as a confident walk;
- wide and deep chest;
- the belly should not be sagging;
- well developed respiratory system;
- narrow head with small and thin horns;
- the base of the tail should be thin.
Remember that choosing a dairy cow, you get a friend and a nurse for many years to come. For many years this animal will be able to provide you with ecologically clean cow's milk, and the lactic acid products prepared from it and the most delicious butter will allow you to diversify your daily table.
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