Farmers know that the dry period in cows begins when approximately two months remains before calving. Milking stops and they are transferred to the launch. This time is of great importance in terms of the safety of the health of the animal and offspring, as well as to increase milk production. For such a short period, the Burenka must gain strength, have a good rest and make the necessary supply of nutrients in the body. The issues of proper care and feeding come to the fore.
Significance and duration of the dry period
Features of the physiology of cattle give the possibility of simultaneously carrying the fetus and feeding the newly born offspring with milk. The duration of the pregnancy period is 9 months, of which in the last two milking is interrupted. Its termination is due to the fact that the return of cow's milk should not affect the incoming nutrients to the embryo.
Before the onset of the dry period and after its cessation, various nutrients necessary for the proper functioning of the animal are washed out of the body of the animal. The main cause of this phenomenon is lactation, and even a properly chosen and balanced diet will not help to compensate for the loss.
The minimum duration of this period should not be shorter than 45 days, the maximum - more than 75. The reasons for this limitation are due to the fact that less time will lead to abnormal development of the fetus. With subsequent yields, dry cows will also have problems. Lengthening the dry stand will not bring practical benefits, but on the contrary will lead to economic losses.
Changes in the diet of cows
The dry period of a cow is the final stage of pregnancy, to the completion of which the animal should be well prepared. First of all, we are talking about proper and balanced nutrition.
Changes in the diet are not just important, they are vital. First of all, it will be necessary to reconsider the situation with succulent feeds: their volume will necessarily have to be reduced, and in certain cases even to stop issuing to cows. Approximately 2 weeks before the start of the dead, it is necessary to reduce the content in the diet of root crops, silage and tubers - no more than 20% of the total feed. The use of food waste, for example, bards or beet pulp, is not the best solution, since these substances have a milky effect. It is desirable not only to reduce their consumption, but to completely eliminate from the diet of animals.
A drop in milk yield about one week before launch is common, but if this did not happen, then you need to further reduce the consumption of succulent feed. The task here is simple: temporarily stop the formation of milk. But later, by increasing such feeds, lactation will be restored.
For a long period of time, it is unacceptable to feed a dry cow only with hay, this will adversely affect the nutrition of the fetus and the productivity of the animal.
Control of the state of the mass of the cow is of paramount importance, because its appetite at this time is deteriorating, therefore, the correct diet will allow you to survive the generic and post-natal periods without serious problems.
Feed rate of dry cows
The diet for the entire dry period can not be the same. During this time, many factors should be taken into account, ranging from the animal's nutritional needs and ending with the prospects of gaining or losing weight, which can adversely affect the hotel.
Feeding before start is reduced. This is especially true for those cows that have high rates of productivity. Naturally, such a reduction is temporary. Soon the diet is restored in the same amount. Moreover, it is subsequently necessary to improve the quality of feeding, increasing its nutritional value by about 15-20%. When it remains about a month before calving, there is a new decrease in the amount of food, reaching the lowest rates in the last days of pregnancy.
Qualitative enhancement and increase in nutrition at the beginning of the deadwood brings an increase in weight up to 20 kg, if you also take a calf in the womb, then up to 80.
In the course of improving the nutritional ration, the following goals are pursued:
- provide the fetus with the energy and nutrients it needs to continue growing;
- eliminate the risk of exhaustion of the cow, which is especially important for individuals with high productivity;
- minimize the risk of postpartum complications;
- prepare the animal for a section.
The more attention is paid to the proper nutrition of pregnant cows and heifers, the higher the productivity of the animals will be, the faster their lactation will be restored and the posterity will be healthier.
A few care tips
In order for the development of the calf inside the womb to be correct, and the birth was successful and without complications, it is also necessary to pay attention to the sufficient presence of a dry cow in the sun. This is necessary to improve metabolism, training its muscular system and better preparation for the subsequent activity after calving.
Dry cows and heifers should have free access to water, they must be fed two or three times a day. Regarding feeding, it is important to remember that it is necessary to get energy, both for the female and for the calf, and not fat. Feed must be of high quality, free from mold and rotten elements. On the eve of calving, females should be placed in separate stalls unattached to reduce the risk of creating a stressful situation.
It is rather difficult to overestimate the dry period in the life of cows, because its quality directly affects the viability and productivity of the offspring. Proper care and feeding of pregnant cows makes it possible to increase milk yield and improve the overall productivity of the farm.
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