Having decided to start a cow, it is worthwhile to find out when a cow gives milk. After all, this good-natured animal is the most real nurse. It produces a tasty and healthy product that can be used for your own nutrition or it is beneficial to realize it in its natural form. Excellent characteristics and secondary products. It is enough to produce a simple processing and now we have sour cream, cottage cheese, cheese, butter, yogurt or something else that is no less tasty and healthy. However, the production process does not last forever.
Who does a cow produce milk for?
A cow belongs to the family of mammals, that is, for normal life in its offspring it becomes necessary to obtain some milk for a certain period of time. A newborn calf is too weak and is not able to get food for itself. And even more so his body is completely not adapted to the absorption and processing of rough vegetable food.
Wise nature took care of the little one and, thanks to complex evolutionary processes, mammals developed an instinct that stimulates the body to produce milk for raising its young. The calf feeds the mother, who is always side by side, and the crumb is always in free access to a tasty, nutritious and easily digestible product.
Milk is stored in the udder and contains the following components:
- vitamins and proteins;
- mineral salts.
All these substances are formed in milk and are vital for the proper growth and development of the calf.
Features of milk production
If you think about why a cow gives milk, the answer comes by itself. Cattle representatives produce this product to feed their offspring. Under natural conditions, mammals can not always provide themselves with a sufficient amount of food, especially in the winter period.
However, even with a shortage of feed, the cow feeds the calf with milk produced from previously accumulated fat. In addition to vitamins and nutrients, vital for a fast-growing young, this useful fluid contains antibodies. They, entering the body, protect the baby from diseases and contribute to the formation of reliable immunity.
Milk production occurs immediately after calving. As soon as the calf is born, a complex process is launched in the mother's body, aimed at providing nutrition for the crumbs. The first few days, when the cow starts to give milk, colostrum is produced. Later, it changes its properties and turns into a well-known product.
Milk formation process
Understanding where the milk comes from is possible only after a detailed study of this complex and important process. It is formed in the mammary gland, which is called the udder.
As soon as the body of the cow receives a signal about the need to provide offspring with food, the process of secretion of the hormone prolactin is launched. It is he who is responsible for the full formation of colostrum, and later - milk. Its chemical composition, as well as fat content, is associated with the production of thyroid hormones.
It is believed that more productive cows have less fat milk than cows with average values.
In their natural habitat, mammals independently wean their young from the udder. As soon as the animal becomes pregnant, the mechanism of preparation for the appearance of a new baby starts. As for private farms, cows can produce milk for up to 300 days a year. A few months after calving, lactation decreases in the cows.
A little bit about milk production
In different mammals, the composition and appearance of milk is almost the same. There are only minor differences in the content of microelements and other components produced during lactation. Experts say that the nutritional value of this product is directly related to the food of the animal. So, if bitter herbs prevail in the cattle menu, then the milking product is obtained with a corresponding flavor.
Let's take a closer look at how a cow gets milk. You might think that it was formed from the food that they give her - hay, fodder. However, the dog eats completely different, and the young feeds the same way. Moreover, regardless of the type, size and gastronomic needs, any mammal is able to have milk stored in the mammary gland and has a similar composition. Where does it come from?
It turns out that everything is simple: blood is the main raw material for the production of this product. It seems to be completely different substances, but they are very close in content. It turns out that when processing about 500 liters of blood, only a liter of milk appears in the udder. Imagine how much blood is needed for the formation of the daily rate.
But this does not mean that the nutrition of the animal plays absolutely no role, and only blood is needed for the milk to appear. Food - the main supplier of vitamins, microelements and nutrients. The more useful and varied the diet of cattle, the richer the blood and tastier the milk of the cow.
To find out how a cow produces this product, you need to refer to its physiology. In this process involved complex chemical reactions involving enzymes. Every minute, an average of 3.5 liters of blood runs through the cow's udder. In the mammary gland of mammals contains special cells. With their help, vitamins and other beneficial substances are taken from the blood, converted into milk and delivered to the udder for further storage. Next, the owner milks the animal.
Secrets of the "big" milk
As a rule, a cow gives birth to one, less often two cubs. Moreover, her body is designed in such a way that cow's milk is produced in large quantities. That is, it lacks both the calf and the owner. To calculate how much a cow is able to give milk per day or per year can be done by simple calculations. But each indicator is individual, and on average the figure varies within 17 liters.
Large farms tend to get cow's milk in large volumes in order to get a solid profit. In such cases, use the following techniques.
The calf is not allowed to be near the mother. It is carried away on the first day and placed in a special box and watered with milk.
As soon as the cattle calved, cow's milk was completely decanted, or allowed to reach the baby's udder. However, in the latter case, it is important to carefully monitor the condition of the breast.
Milking cows spend at least two, and preferably three times a day. Breaks of six to seven hours between milkings are needed to fill the udder with milk. But how much time you would not devote to this process, the interval should not exceed 10 hours.
Frequent and complete milking stimulates the lactation process, because the cow believes that her cub is not enough food, and milk yield is growing. However, this process is not endless. Each animal has its own limit of productivity, which depends on the breed, age, nutrition, and some other components.
Animals are covered annually, that is, several months after calving, they are given to become pregnant again. A good cow can be milked all year round, but after six months, the milk yield falls and then becomes just miserable, which is completely unprofitable. Therefore, the cow is inseminated when its cub is 60-70 days old, and is stopped for milking a couple of months before the new birth. During this period, the female's body has time to relax and gain strength for further highly productive lactation.
Productive age of the cow
Now let us tell you the age at which the cow starts to give milk. To do this, turn to the physiology of cattle. Sexual maturity in chicks, with high-quality and full-fledged nutrition, occurs at 14 months. But at this age rarely spend the first mating. It is believed that the optimal fertilization period begins with one and a half years. From this time on, a cow will be able to carry a healthy, large calf perfectly, and in its body a sufficient amount of milk will be produced. But from what age the heifer will be covered for the first time and how often mating will occur in the future depends only on its owner.
After 1 calving the cow is milked 9-10 months. During this period, it will give 5-6 thousand liters of high-quality product. These figures are relative, as depending on the breed, age and conditions of detention, the animal may have a greater or lesser result. Thus, during a day, an individual with ordinary indicators forms an average of 10-15, and in highly productive pedigree representatives up to 45 liters of milk.
Cows give milk, regardless of the season - in winter and summer, you just need to provide high-quality housing conditions. But at what age will begin the most productive period, definitely can not be said.
Some experts say that the maximum milk yield will be generated after 4-5 calvings. Before this age, the milk in a cow is formed in sufficient quantity, but the peak of lactation falls at this very moment.
In good conditions, a Burenka can live 10 or even more years, but how much milk it will give depends on the breed and conditions of detention.
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