To be able to determine how much an average cow weighs, the exact weight of the calf, calculate the average daily weight gain and other important indicators of the farm - the primary task of a real breeder. Ignorance of these characteristics can adversely affect your business. After all, you can not make any accurate predictions. The ability to determine the weight of calves will be beneficial when buying new heads, and when caring for animals, will teach how to grow healthy cattle.
Normal weight of young stock at different periods of life
The mass of an adult animal varies in accordance with its breed and feeding characteristics, but the weight of the calf in the first year of life varies according to the laws common to all breeds. Being born, the baby weighs 30-40 kg. Every day of his life, he gains 500-800 g. In 2 months, the baby increases its weight by 2 times.
At 6 months, the calf weight reaches 120-180 kg. These numbers should be remembered - they will definitely come in handy when buying calves, because it is recommended to acquire them from 6 months of age. At 1 year old youngsters with proper feeding can reach a weight of 250-400 kg. More information about nutrition, you can read in our article "Rules of feeding calves for months."
For 2 years, cows and bulls gain from 600 to 800 kg. If you take good care of animals, in 3 years they will reach 900-1200 kg.
Interestingly, the largest bull in the world, weighing 1,740 kg and reaching a height of 190 cm, belonged to a porcelain breed. This is the maximum weight recorded by the herders.
Record winners in mass are found today. There are bulls weighing up to 1.5 tons - it all depends on your goals and feeding methods.
Categories of weight and factors affecting it
Live weight of cattle depends on many factors. To correctly answer the question of how to find out the weight of a newborn calf, young calf or adult bull, you need to find out what these factors are. When determining the average weight of a cow, the following are taken into account:
- type of breed (meat and dairy, meat, dairy);
- period of cow development (age);
- the sex (the male is usually 350 kg larger than the heifer);
- quality content and feeding.
The latter factor is particularly strongly reflected in the weight of the newborn calf. Babies up to three months need care and a lot of attention so that they grow correctly and quickly.
The ability to determine how much a cow weighs will help you figure out what type of animals are. Cattle is divided into 4 categories. Selected chicks have a weight of 450 to 600 kg. The cattle of the first category reaches 400-450 kg, the second - 380-400 kg. The third type of cows weigh less than 300 kg, their record weight can reach 380 kg.
Average daily gain: features and methods of calculation
To understand whether your animals develop normally, you must be able to count the average daily weight gain. If the live weight of cattle is in the range of 500-1000 g, then this increase is considered normal. It depends on many factors: diet, breed, type, age. In a two-month-old calf, the weight is gained slightly slower than in one-year-old cows and bulls. You can calculate how much an animal adds to a day using the formula:
- determine the initial live weight (Wo);
- determine the mass at the time of calculation (Wt);
- from Wt subtract Wo;
- divide the result by the time elapsed between the initial period and the time of calculation (t);
- multiply the resulting number by 1000.
Thanks to this formula, it is possible not only to monitor the development of calves, but also to predict how many days (months, years) the animal will achieve optimal weight for slaughtering.
Calculation of meat productivity
Live weight of cattle is the mass of the animal before slaughter. Meat productivity is a part of the meat in a cow that does not take into account the brain and the whole head, wool and skins, as well as the legs and bones. The output of meat from cows is 50-65%, depending on the type of breed: meat, dairy, meat and dairy. Pork, in this plan is more profitable than beef - its output mass is 70-80%. The percentage of body weight and the yield of cow carcasses are shown in the table:
The table shows that the greater the weight indicators of the animal and the smaller bones in its carcass, the greater the percentage of pure meat that can be obtained.
Most of the weight, with the exception of bones, is taken over by the head and skin of animals. The skins of gobies are divided into two groups, depending on the thickness of the skin: light - from 17 to 25 kg and heavy - over 25 kg. The weight of the head of the cow is 10-15 kg - it is the favorite product of housewives for cooking jelly.
Weight gain and average daily gain of calves
An indicator like the weight of a bull is the basis of many farming tasks. It can be used to determine which weight class the bull belongs to, calculate the average daily gain and track the level of development. That is why in the first months of life, herders regularly measure the weight of a bull, following the indicators obtained.
The calf is actively developing during the first six months of life. During this period, farmers constantly measure and monitor weight gain. Strict control is important not only for those calves who are fed for meat, but also for repair heifers.
The table below will help you determine the weight and average daily weight gain at the main stages of young growth.
The table shows that in 3 months the calves reach an average daily gain of 700 g and keep it up to half a year. Moreover, in this period of development, the calf class does not affect the mass at all. The only difference is that the breeding heifer is born with more weight than repair breeds.
Indicators of popular breeds - what should be equal
One of the most popular breeding types for breeding is the red steppe. Weight of calves at birth can reach 40 kg. That they prefer to buy for fattening for later slaughter for meat. This is one of the breeds, successful in all directions. More information about the breed, you can read in the article "Red steppe and other red breeds of cows."
Black-and-white calves are quite popular on Russian farms. This is a breed of the first meat type, because the live weight of adults reaches 600 kg. Such heifers are kept on farms for their high dairy performance, and they are allowed to feed bulls. More information about the breed and its characteristics can be found in the article "Black-and-white cows".
The first meat type includes cows of the Anglers breed, whose weight reaches 550 kg. Angler bulls gain in weight up to 1000 kg, for which they are valued by livestock breeders. The first meat type is represented by such breeds as the Ukrainian meat, Sharolese, Hereford, Askanian.
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