Productive bull maker allows you to greatly increase the livestock on the farm. It is grown in special conditions and constantly monitor the state of health. Special attention is paid to the nutrition of the animal, because it affects the productivity of the male. An adult is kept separate from the rest of the herd and used for insemination of cows. Today there are three known methods, each of which has its own pros and cons.
What is the animal used on the farm?
In order for newborn calves to have good health, and subsequently excellent meat and dairy characteristics, parents with high indices are required. In the farm, the insemination bulls are always under special control and maintenance. It depends on them the number of offspring in the herd and the economic profit of the farmer. Previously, the male was reduced to about a hundred cows during the year. However, this turned out to be ineffective since a large number of cages are very tiring for the animal. After that, it takes a long period to replenish energy and strength.
Studies have shown that bulls of breeding enterprises are best kept for artificial insemination. Therefore, today the individuals used for these purposes never copulate with cows. Specialists use certain devices to collect sperm, and then carry out artificial insemination.
This practice is very beneficial, since one bull can fertilize several hundred cows every year, but at the same time preserve its health and ability to copulate. The record-holder of the Podolsk breed, which weighs about 1.5 tons, gained fame. About 50 thousand calves are received from it annually, but this is an exception to the rule.
Requirements for the content of the bull manufacturer
The health of the bulls will be strong only if they are properly looked after. The animal needs a special attitude towards itself. First of all, you need to monitor its weight and avoid obesity. To do this, livestock must be kept on pasture for at least 3 hours each day. During the walk, you can force the animal to climb the mountain to strengthen its bones and muscles.
Regular physical activity has a positive effect on health and longevity. Lack of load makes animals angry and dangerous to others. Accordingly, it will be problematic to organize the process of collecting sperm or mating with a cow.
It is necessary to build the most spacious pen and separate the inseminator from the other herd. Every day, the bull must be brushed or completely bathed. It is important to pay attention to cleaning the forehead, neck, the space between the horns, so that cattle dust does not begin to itch. In addition, it is necessary, as necessary, to clean the hooves from dirt and carefully trim them. The animal also needs a ring in its nose so that farmers can interact with it safely. The fact is that bulls feel a lot of pain when they are pulled by the ring. Therefore, livestock owners can fully control it.
How to feed the cattle
Great attention should be paid to feeding the bulls so that they are healthy. Only in this case it will be possible to obtain high-quality biological material. The menu should consist of a large amount of protein. You also need to ensure the receipt of the required number of trace elements and vitamins. The basis of health lay in childhood. It is necessary from the first days of life to feed the bulls with colostrum and milk. When the cattle grows up, you should introduce into the diet juicy feed, hay, concentrates. In the summer it is recommended to use hay so that the sperm is not thinned.
The diet for animal digesters should include silage, carrots, beets. To improve reproductive qualities, fish, meat and bone meal, mixed feed with yeast are introduced into the menu. You can also add to the feed special vitamin and mineral supplements that do not allow the development of vitamin deficiency. For example, "Felutsen" or "Vitol". You can not overfeed the animal, because obesity affects the state and activity of sperm.
For the excellent health of bulls, it is important to strictly follow the rules of feeding. Farmers' blunders negatively affect the quality of sperm and the general condition of the animal. Restoration of cattle health can take several months, and will require significant financial investments. Simple rules will help to avoid consequences.
First of all, you can not give the cattle a large amount of carbohydrate food, because it greatly loads the liver. Excess glucose leads to severe obesity and problems with the formation of muscles and skeleton. Bulls can be fattened up to 9 months, and then the volume of food needs to be reduced. Regular overeating threatens not only overweight. Excessive growth of cattle is a great stress for the skeleton and the body as a whole. The result is a decrease in sexual desire and constant pain during physical activity.
Excess protein content threatens with liver problems and a decrease in the amount of sperm produced.
Read more about feeding males of cattle in the article “How to feed producers' bulls”.
Assessing the breeding bulls
Cattle begin to check on the quality of the offspring from the age of one. About 65 breeding cows, 105 marketable and about 20 heifers should be inseminated with sperm of one animal. All bulls need to be checked at the same time and do it for a maximum of six months. The ability to fertilize is detected by the number of primary effective insemination. If less than half of the female cows become pregnant, the producers are no longer checked.
About 35-40 heifers are grown from each animal. They are estimated at 1 and 1.5 years according to the constitution and appearance, as well as after calving at 2 months of lactation. The dairy qualities of cows are checked with the help of control milk feeds, which are held monthly. The first test should be taken 2 weeks after delivery.
Udder is estimated for the second month of lactation. Its form and intensity of milk return are checked. In addition, information on the productivity of subsidiaries is taken into account. Preliminary assessment should be carried out in the first 3 months of lactation.
How is insemination
Today three methods of insemination are used. Among them:
- machine tool;
First of all, they differ in performance level. When mating of bulls with cows in natural conditions is practiced, the males are in the pasture with the females and plant on them during the hunting period. The advantage of the method is that in most cases the process is successful. Therefore, natural insemination is still used on private farms. The downside is the lack of control by the owners of the animals. It is not possible to determine how much the cage made the producer and what cows he impregnated.
The machine method is completely controlled by the farmer. A cow fed several hours ago is driven into the pen with machines. The manufacturer is given time to prepare, after which he produces the plant under the supervision of a specialist. The downside is the increased load on the bulls. Even a completely healthy and young producer can seed a maximum of 300 cows per year. He needs a long period of rest, otherwise he may have health problems.
Artificial insemination method
In conclusion, let's talk about artificial insemination, which is now practiced in many farms. This method allows to preserve the health of the producers, because some of them never copulate with the cow. In addition, several thousand cows can be fertilized annually with the help of artificial insemination. All the details of the process you can learn from the article "Methods of artificial insemination of cows."
Artificial insemination is economically beneficial for farming. The fact is that the crossing of closely related individuals adversely affects the performance of the herd. As a result, farmers have to regularly replace the bulls, and this is very expensive. Especially if you buy a productive elite cattle with excellent characteristics.
The use of an artificial method allows not to depend on the health of individuals. If one of the growers gets very sick, there will be no threat to insemination. Farmers do not have to urgently look for funds and acquire another animal. You can simply buy the sperm and use it as needed. Moreover, one dose of biological material is much cheaper than the new bull.
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