Perhaps the main period in the life of a cattle is the service period of a cow. This is the average time between calving and the following fertilization. As practice has shown, the health of the cow and the future calf depend on this period. Plus it has a strong effect on milk and meat production. Next, we will analyze in detail what the duration of the service depends on, what time is considered optimal, and also you will learn with the help of what mechanisms you can normalize this period.
Generally accepted standards
According to well-established standards in modern animal husbandry, the duration of service training should not be more than 95 days. But every breeder and research center have their own views on the duration of the service.
So some breeders try to minimize this period of time and fertilize the cow in the very first hunt. Usually it is about 18-23 days from calving. Others, on the contrary, pull to the last; their cows are fertilized between 90 and 120 days.
Here it is important to understand that if a cow is not fertilized within 4 months (120 days), then it goes into the category of barges, which is very bad for not only the breeder’s profits, but also the health of the buren.
In our opinion, which, by the way, is shared by almost half of the livestock breeders, the normal time for the next fertilization of a cow is a period of 45-60 days from calving. This is enough for the cow to regain strength and at the same time not exceed the norms of the so-called lag period.
We knowingly mentioned the lag period. This term is called the scheme of increasing the total mass of feed in the postpartum period of active lactation. This is the way the animal works, that after giving birth it cannot consume a lot of food. But at this particular time, the baby requires more nutrients and the cow is actively distributed. Plus, the energy value of colostrum is several times higher than that of ordinary milk.
Therefore, within 100 days after birth, the energy component of the food consumed by the cows is less than the energy and vitamin value of milk. Simply put, a cow donates the internal reserves of her body to the needs of the calf. Such extreme operation results in a loss of weight for the cow from 70 to 120 kg.
Now imagine that, against the background of this weight loss, the animal still needs to find strength to restore sexual function after childbirth. The scheme is simple, if a cow has a negative energy balance, then there can be no conception of a speech. Only when the animal passes the lower point and begins to gradually build up strength does the likelihood of a new fertilization increase.
What determines the duration
If a cow has a negative energy balance after giving birth, this means that the breeder made serious mistakes during the dry period. The rapid recovery of the animal and the normal conception largely depend on the diet of the feed during the dry period, especially in the last 10 days.
But here it is important to know the norm. Particularly zealous owners achieve weight gain in the dry period up to 600 g per day. As a result, the cow comes to giving birth to an overly fat one, from 4 balls upwards. This approach results in a lack of appetite after childbirth. The animal produces an accumulated stock, thereby delaying ovulation and increasing service time.
The other extreme is a skinny cow. After giving birth, her energy balance is much lower than normal. In this case, until the animal gains the desired weight, it will not be ready to conceive a calf. With a good set of circumstances and a decent diet from calving, before conception, a lean cow takes about 2 months.
The cow, whose fatness is within normal limits, has a good appetite and is quickly restored. And here the main thing - to make the right diet, so as not to spoil the "dry bookmark."
How to restore sexual function
It would seem that nothing complicated: the cow needs to be fed with high-quality high-calorie feed and you will be happy. But not everything is so simple, firstly, you need to know what to give, and secondly, you need to correctly calculate the volume and frequency of feeding.
In the first 3 months after childbirth, the stomach and rennet of the cow are still not working very well. They need to stretch and bring to the prenatal rate. On average, at the initial stage, a Burenka can eat no more than 2.5 kg of dry concentrates per day, which is often not enough. The breeder’s task is to double this result for 100 days and increase feed intake to 3.7-4.5 kg per day.
But if a cow is not able to eat much, how can she recover? For this there are 2 parallel paths. First you need to increase the number of really nutritious food, in other words - compound feed. And in parallel with this, try to wake up the appetite of the cows with all available means.
Now produced a lot of good feed, which are specially designed for the service period cows. Some manufacturers even provide in the accompanying documents the hourly schedule of feeding and rates. The problem is that the price of such pleasure is not suitable for all breeders.
Domestic experts recommend introducing about 50% of all sorts of feed and additives into the cow's diet, while foreign breeders advise to go further and bring this amount to 60%, but not stable, but briefly.
Fortunately, there is an alternative way out. For cows during the initial lactation period, the share of maize in the total feed mass should be 40%. Along with this, soybean goes there with full fat content (20%).
Excellent result gives the introduction of feed fat, in particular palm oil, up to 5%. Diatomic propylene glycol (alcohol) is well suited for the normalization of blood glucose and rapid balance recovery. But about its use is better to consult a veterinarian. Again, everything must be given without fanaticism, in order not to get acidosis.
How to restore appetite
Increasing the appetite of cows is an equally important problem. Here there are several ways and it is desirable to combine all these methods in some way. For a start, we would advise to increase the frequency of eating cows. On average, a cow needs to be fed 3-4 times a day.
If feeding tables are used for feeding, then it is necessary to turn the mass more often and move it closer to the cow. Such a simple reception leads to the fact that the cow perceives the feed, as a new and more actively eats it.
The taste of feed is directly dependent on the level of raw fiber. In order for cows to be happy to eat everything they are given, this very fiber should be as small as possible. But detergents and especially neutral should be as much as possible. These parameters have a feed produced from young plants.
If to put it in a more accessible language, the cow should be fed as often as possible with hay and compound feed from young plants. At the same time, it is advisable to constantly feed the feed and push it closer to the cow.
Protein and lack of minerals
When a cow passes the mark of 15 liters of milk per day, special attention should be paid to the protein content of the feed. More precisely, the ratio of its split to non-split. During the service period, the main enemy of the cow is protein fraction with rapid cleavage. It is they who in many ways crush the reproductive function.
Also do not forget about the restoration of the mineral balance. First of all, you should pay attention to the presence of phosphorus in the feed. If in the traditional diet it is not enough, then you need to enter the concentrates. One of the best options is monocalcium phosphate and defluorinated phosphate (DFP). The first has the optimum ratio of phosphorus and potassium, and in the second there is non-chlorine sodium.
Thus, along with phosphorus, sodium and potassium are injected into the cow's body. As a result, the potassium-anion component in the reproductive system of the animal is aligned and the chances of conception increase.
Effect of vitamins
In the first couple of months of lactation, absolutely all cows need to strengthen the vitamin component of the diet. Especially dangerous is the lack of carotene and the vitamin triad consisting of vitamins A, D and E. Without this kit it is simply impossible to restore the sexual function of the animal, which means that the service period of the cow will grow. Each of these vitamins is responsible for its own sector, in particular:
- Vitamin A - normalizes metabolism in the mucous membrane of the genital sphere;
- Vitamin D - activates and controls the production of sex hormones;
- Vitamin E - stabilizes the work of the reproductive system as a whole.
All these vitamins in sufficient quantities are contained in the cereal-bean mixed feed, so the emphasis should be placed on him, per day the Burenka should receive from 2-3 kg of such mixed feed. Haylage is considered the best natural source of carotene. If for any reason you cannot provide this diet, then tetravit injections will help to supplement vitamin starvation.
Unfortunately, there is no universal recipe that is suitable for absolutely all cows. Therefore, the problem needs to be addressed comprehensively.
Perhaps one of your friends on the network is also interested in this issue, and if this material seemed useful to you, put likes and share it with your friends.