The most valuable material for the leather industry - calf skin. Genuine leather of young individuals is a unique basis for the creation of household items and decorative items. Since ancient times, people knew how to process the skin and used it to make shoes, bags, clothes and all sorts of accessories. There are several types of genuine leather, which, depending on the purpose, method of dressing and the type of raw material used for processing, are very different from each other.
The composition and structure of the skin
The quality of the skin from the skin of the calf is influenced by gender, age, housing conditions, the diet of the cow during pregnancy, the quality of feed used by the newborn, and the time of its slaughter.
The calf skin consists of the dermis, subcutaneous tissue and epidermis. The outer layer is covered with cornified base. The thickness of the epidermis usually reaches 5% of the entire thickness of the skin, and it is the epidermis layer that is removed during dressing.
What you need to know about the dermis
Derma - the most valuable component of the skin, from it produce skin.
It is an interlacing of collagen, reticulin and elastin bundles. These components make the dermis elastic and durable.
The border of the epidermis, from which the dermis begins, is covered with the thinnest film. When making leather this film, located on the surface of the finished product, is called a face. The appearance of a particular final product depends on its design, strength and density.
The dermis consists of the papillary layer, which is supplied with sebaceous, sweat glands and has a loose, less durable structure. The dermis also contains a mesh layer consisting of rigid collagen fibers.
Classification of types of skins
The skin of the dairy calf, depending on its age, is divided into the following types:
Slik - so called skin of the uterine or stillborn calf. Its thickness is 1-1.4 mm. Used primarily for the manufacture of lykovy products.
Opoyek is the skin of a calf molokososa, removed from it to six months of age. Thickness - 0.5-1.4 mm. A young individual up to this age is exclusively breastfed and does not consume any vegetable food. This feature gives the products of this material softness, tenderness and elasticity.
Opoyeks are much stronger than slippery, therefore they are widely used for the production of light footwear and fur products.
The skin of a dairy calf up to a year, consuming at the same time both colostrum and vegetable food is called a sprout. In quality, it is less soft and elastic as compared with the dressing of the crown, while reaching a thickness of 0.7-1.6 mm. Valued in the manufacture of boots and other thick shoes.
Half-skinner and scopes
The skin of a young calf under the age of one and a half is a half-skinner. It is the toughest, and therefore requires cutting. Its thickness can be within 1-3 mm.
There are also types "yalovka", "bull", "bychin" and "buffalo" - the so-called skin of the senior representatives of the cattle.
The calf skin is the highest quality and best-selling material. Strong, durable and very comfortable summer shoes are made from the resulting skin of young individuals. By embossing make "crocodile", "lizard" and "snake" skin.
From the skins of plush breeds of cows, soft and fluffy fur is obtained, which is used for the collars of winter leather jackets and fur coats. The calf skin itself is smooth, soft and docile. At the same time, it is very durable, and this ensures that the product made from it is free from cracks and damage to the surface.
Bags made from the skin of a suckling calf are valued for elegance and long life.
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