Today we will talk about the cow, the bull and their offspring. This cattle can be found in almost any farm. The article details the biological characteristics of the cattle, provides information about their external and internal characteristics. Readers will learn about the sexual cycles of cows, newborn calves, as well as get tips on proper care for these ruminants.
About biological characteristics
A domestic cow is a female, a subspecies of a wild bull. If we talk about the classification of cattle by age, then the bull is an adult male, and young animals (the child of a cow) are a bull, calf or heifer.
Castrated bulls are called oxen, and a heifer is a cow until first pregnancy. When describing animals, breeds are divided into three economic groups:
- meat and dairy;
Some animals are raised for milk, and others for meat. In line with this, the cow and calves must be fed with different foods in order to achieve the desired result.
If we talk about interesting facts about cows, it is worth mentioning that today there are approximately 1080 breeds. There are also about 121 breeds of zebu, 38 buffalo and 30 hybrids of zebu and burenka. And yet: there are cows with and without horns. More information can be found in the article "Who are komolye cows."
Weight and life span
Cows and a bull have been living with a person for many years. This cattle has its own preferences and way of life. Burenka has established habits, likes to eat certain foods and even listen to music.
Dairy cows live on the farm for about 12-15 years. During this time, females can settle about 10 times. The life of domestic cattle is divided into several periods:
- ripening - a young cow up to 2 years;
- calving and lactation - up to 12-14 years;
- old age - over 15 years.
Cattle weight is affected by its breed. Usually cows with horns weigh not less than 750 kg, and their maximum weight reaches 1400 kg.
Today, however, often small cows weighing about 250 kg. Cattle size depends on the direction in which it is used. If an animal is raised for slaughter, it will always weigh more than the milky appearance.
In the external description of the cow, we note that the color depends on the habitat. It can be white, cream, red, spotty. You can often find a black dairy cow. In England, live small species of animals, whose growth is 80 cm.
If we talk about cows, it is worth noting that they are conservative animals, so they do not like vanity, change of scenery and violation of the regime. For example, the volume of milk will decrease if cows and calves are transferred to another room.
Still, cows are beasts, so their male — a domestic bull of any kind, even a small one — often shows uncontrollable aggression against farmers. Moreover, it appears suddenly, and the behavior is very difficult to predict. Violent behavior can cause people great harm. Therefore, it is useful to know everything about cows, and to behave very carefully.
Before calving, cattle can also show aggression towards their owners. She is behind the herd for a walk, trying to pull the hay to one side. A cow with a calf is often wary of people; it may not allow them to visit their son or daughter.
And finally, cash cows. Keep in mind that if the cow does not want it, it may not give milk. Therefore, it must be treated with care and care.
Basics of competent breeding
Buren is allowed to breed in 1.5 years. If the breed is late, then closer to 2 years. Moreover, during the first mating of a cow with a bull, an individual must weigh at least 70% of the average mass of the breed. In this case, the newborn calf will be viable.
The breeding age of a bull comes earlier. So, beef cattle can be reduced from 15 months. However, he must gain at least 500 kg of weight in order not to harm his health. And the bull can be reduced no more than 2 times a day.
Regardless of the type of heifer, breeding is carried out only under the control of the owners. Most farms have long abandoned the free mating, because it is difficult to control the number of cages and determine which bull the cow has a calf. Today, artificial insemination of cows is often used, thanks to which one male gives a large offspring. But this method is used only in large farms, because for these purposes requires the help of an experienced veterinarian.
Sexual cycles of the animal
In cattle breeding it is important to take into account each period in the sexual cycle of the animal. It depends on how successful the pairing will be. Each of the four periods has its own name: estrus, sexual arousal, hunting, ovulation.
The flow begins with the release of clear mucus from the vagina. Thus, the uterus prepares for fertilization. At first the mucus is very thin, and then it becomes cloudy and thickens. During the period of sexual arousal, the chick (cow) becomes very nervous, she grunts, her appetite disappears. If there is no male in the herd, the cows can jump on each other, making cages and imitating sexual intercourse. The milk they give off changes the taste and is rolled up during boiling.
The hunting period is the most successful for mating, since there is an increased sexual activity on the male. Novice farmers do not always know what are the external characteristics in this period. The labia become red and increase in size, the vulva swells a lot. Sometimes body temperature rises.
After the end of the hunt, a period of ovulation begins, when an egg cell leaves the mature follicle.
Who is such a cruel and why buy it
It also does not hurt to find out the definition of the word "Netel" This is a pregnant female who has never given birth. If the female individual of cattle has never been reduced - this is a heifer. After the termination of pregnancy, the heifers, she becomes a first-calf, she starts lactation.
Farmers often purchase heifers to improve the genetic stock, get more milk and better meat. This has its pros and cons. Purchase of heifers at a late gestation period is beneficial, since soon the female will have offspring. However, a cow with a calf in the uterus is much more expensive, because in fact the farmer acquires two animals at once. In addition, it is not known how much milk can be obtained from a fresh-water animal, because it has not yet had a lactation period.
Therefore, before buying a cow, you need to measure its weight and inquire about the health of relatives. If you buy a cow with a calf, you need to know detailed information about the herd, the volume of milk yield to sisters or parents, their fertility.
More about the newborn calf
The pregnancy of the first heifer and the already giving birth lasts 285 days. All this time, the animal must be under the close supervision of a specialist. Most often, after mating with a bull, a cow gives birth to one calf. Sometimes pregnancy is double. Rare is the birth of three individuals at a time.
At the end of pregnancy, the weight of the cow increases greatly, and the pelvis begins to expand. A newborn baby cow weighs from 20 to 45 kg, and in height it reaches about 50 m. It all depends on the breed of the animal. The baby gets on its feet somewhere in an hour after birth. A cow usually takes good care of a son, always responding to his voice. However, a cow with a calf needs care and care.
A child of cattle sucks milk for about half a year, since he is a mammal animal. It is impossible to skip this period, otherwise the baby will grow very weak and will be sick a lot. If mother's milk is not enough, it can be replaced with an artificial mixture.
Care for cattle at home
Cows and bulls require competent conditions of detention. The better the animal will feel, the more milk will be obtained, and the meat will be tastier.
Today there are two ways of keeping livestock: stall and grazing. In the summer, the last option is most often used, since a large herd is more economical to graze in a meadow than to keep in a stall.
There are two ways to graze animals in pasture: freestyle and pen drive. In the first case, young cattle and adults are given complete freedom of action. They can move freely around the territory and chew grass. If you use the paddock method, the meadow is divided into several zones. Cattle first graze in one zone, and after 1-2 weeks goes into the second.
It is very important to keep the barn clean and avoid drafts, especially if there is a cow with a calf in it. It is important to provide cattle with the necessary amount of hay, mixed fodder, vegetables and pure water. It does not hurt to know what is called a vitamin supplement to avoid vitamin deficiency. "Eleovit" and "Selemag" have proven themselves well.
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