One of the most valuable materials for making high-quality leather is the skin of a cow. Beautiful stylish clothes, shoes, accessories, bags, drive belts, furniture upholstery are made from it. The correct procedure of dressing allows you to get a soft, smooth skin that does not crack or break. Products from it differ in durability and durability. This product retains its visual appeal over the years, without losing relevance in the cycle of the latest trends of modern fashion.
Calfskin skin varieties
The skin of a young bull, calf is the most valuable raw material for the production of high quality products. Depending on the age of the animal, the qualitative characteristics of such a material have their own characteristics.
Even calves that have not yet been born are a source of human skin. It is called "slip" and has a thickness of from 1 to 1.4 mm. The most valuable material, which is characterized by softness, tenderness, elasticity, is the "calf". This is the skin of young cattle up to six months who are breastfed. Its thickness is 0.5-1.4 mm. The “outgrowth”, “half-skin”, respectively, are supplied by adolescents of cattle under the age of 1 and 1.5 years. This material is harder and thicker (up to 3 mm). "Yalovka", "goby" - the skin of a young cow (4 mm) and a bull (5 mm), which must be sawed in accordance with proven technology.
Properly dressed calf skin is a special value. To subtract the source material requires careful approach to the study of processing technology and accuracy.
This topic is described in detail in the article "Skin of a calf."
What is animal skin for?
Leather production has a rich history and traditions. A man from ancient times has learned to make animal skins at home. The resulting material served as the basis for the production of shoes, clothing, bags, belts, and later, and unique accessories.
Natural cow skin can be classified by purpose and method of finishing. Its thickest version, characterized by increased strength and wear resistance, is used for footwear, horse equipment, belts. Softer material is perfect for clothes and bags.
In accordance with the method of processing and coloring, cattle skins are divided into several types, which are called differently. We will talk about them below. At the same time, this systematics takes into account the skin areas on the body of the animal, which are used for tanning production.
Classification by type and method of skin treatment
Aniline leather is the highest quality variety of this material. It is obtained in the process of dyeing with organic dyes with minimal processing.
"Bychina" is the bull's skin, which is best suited for manual, mechanical embossing. Such a durable material with a thickness of up to 5 mm can be operated for a very long time, while maintaining its visual appeal and properties.
"Nappa" is a semi-aniline high quality material, it is characterized by particular elasticity and softness. Its type is considered "Nappplak", which is obtained by applying the method of varnish.
A scoop is thick, heavy, thick skin. For its manufacture by the method of fat tanning, the skin of cows from the back is used. A more flexible version of it will be called "Shore".
Yuft is obtained from skin taken from the abdominal region of adult animals. In the process of fatty tanning after washing, fleshing, treading, kneading, cutting and a number of other operations, a thick but flexible and soft material is obtained.
Preparing harvested skins for dressing
Harvested cow skin must meet certain requirements, so from the very beginning it is necessary to adhere to strict rules of technology.
The technological scheme of canning of cattle skins by the dry method consists of the following important points:
- cleaning of fat and meat;
- cooling the material on a flat surface in the expanded form with the fur down;
- abundant application of salt without iodine;
- drying the skin for several days until it becomes dry and hard.
After this, skin dressing at home should be preceded by sorting. This creates conditions for long-term storage. In addition, the size, thickness of the center layer and the weight of the material are taken into account. This allows you to accurately calculate the amount of reagents needed to be used during processing.
The manufacture of leather at home
The skin of a cow is handled without any difficulties. There are many ways to excrete the skin. A widespread method based on the use of sour milk. Skins presoaked in clean cold water should be rubbed with coarse salt. Then the wet-salted pieces should be folded in the pile with the flesh down and kept for three days. After that, you need to carefully remove the salt, squeeze, otmyat, meditate material. Put it in a container with one liter of sour milk, with the outer side down for three days, stirring the milk occasionally.
At the end of this process, washing, tanning, and fattening is carried out.
Dressing hides at home requires a lot of effort and certain skills, so the first time it is rarely possible to achieve excellent results.
Over time, the development of individual operations improves the overall quality of the work done by hand.
Soaking and feeding of cattle skins
So that the skin of the cattle is soft, it should be soaked successively in two stages. First, in pure water for four hours, and then keep twelve hours in an aqueous solution of salt. For the preparation of this mixture requires 20 g of salt per 1 liter of water. At 1 kg of skin need 8 liters of solution.
After this treatment, the subcutaneous layer should be easily removed from the wet-salted skin. If this effect is absent, then the soaking time should be increased. To prevent bacterial infection, furatsilin is used in the amount of 6 tablets per 10 liters of water.
Fenning means the process of removing the fatty layer located under the skin of the animal. Such work can be done manually or with the help of a special device in the form of a rotating round knife. This procedure should be carried out carefully, since the hair follicles in the thickness of the skin can be badly affected due to poor cutting. It is necessary to start from the tail and cut the fat layer evenly from the axial center to the periphery.
Washing, pickling and pickling
The following stages after inculcation are called washing and pickling.
The skin of the cow is thoroughly washed with warm water and detergent. To do this, it is best to use a solution in which 10 g of soap is dissolved in 1 l of water, and sometimes soda ash.
To change the skin structure, the skins are placed inside a solution consisting of water, acetic acid — 0.15% and sodium chlorine — 0.04%. In this case, the whole mass should be periodically mixed for 12 hours. When a white strip appears in the fold of the material during squeezing, it is ready.
The pickling can be replaced by fermentation inside an aqueous solution of barley or oat flour. For its preparation, it is required to add a real solution to the heated water, which is prepared from a liter of water, 60 g of salt and 100 g of flour. The fermentation process requires constant monitoring, since it is impossible to perederzhivat material inside the solution.
Cow skin to increase resistance to chemicals is tanned. A solution prepared from 1.5 g of chromium oxide dissolved in a liter of warm water is used. The material should be placed inside the solution for 6 hours and periodically stir it.
At home, you can use chopped oak bark, nettle, willow branches, alder in the amount of 250 g, which is dissolved in one liter of water with 60 g of salt, and then boiled for half an hour and filter. The animal skin is placed inside the solution for 6 hours.
This process requires a special emulsion, which is prepared according to the following recipe.
200 g of laundry soap, 10 g of liquid ammonia and 80 g of any fat are dissolved in water heated to medium temperature. This composition should be evenly processed mezhdry layer of the skin. To do this, use a soft swab or brush. After this procedure, the skin must be kept in piles throughout the day.
Thus, the knowledge of how to properly excrete bovine skin is available to any person. Strict adherence to the rules of technology, accuracy, diligent work will bring consistently good results.
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