Breeding cows and bulls


Absolutely all the genitals of the bull and cows play a large role in breeding. In their structure, they are completely the same as in a calf, and in adult animals. They are divided into external and internal. With the help of external organs, cattle copulate with each other. The internal organs are necessary for carrying the fetus and ripening sperm. Let's take a closer look at each of them.

Labia and Vagina

Labia of the female resemble rollers. Just below them is a tiny bump - the clitoris. It connects to the ischial tubercles with the help of the "legs" of the muscles. The entrance to the vagina starts from the labia and looks like a tube. The vestibule of the vagina is about 9 cm in length, and the wall is lined with inner, middle and outer layers.

The structure of the mucous membrane of the vestibule consists of a large number of glands that secrete special mucus. It moisturizes the walls, and also eliminates all kinds of pathogenic bacteria. The vagina is like a tube about 31-32 cm long. It expands and connects to the vaginal part of the cervix. The mucosa is covered with clutches, and the muscular layer includes two layers: external and internal.

Vaginal mucosa contains layers of the epithelium. During the period of ovulation, the cervical canal opens slightly and passes the secreted mucus.

What does the uterus look like

The cow uterus includes the neck, body and horns. The neck of this organ is about 8 cm long and not more than 4 cm wide. It is covered with a mucous membrane consisting of large folds. The tops of some of them are located towards the entrance to the vagina, so the secreted mucus flows freely along it.

The mucosa of the organ is lined with a cylindrical epithelium, which can secrete cow excretion. When a cow becomes agitated, mucus becomes very large, so sperm can easily penetrate the vagina.

The uterus of a cow includes a body that has a length of about 4 cm. Horns 27-28 cm long depart from it. The first 8-9 cm of the horns of the uterus are accreted, therefore there is a similarity of depression in this area. Along the horns is the uterine ligament, which ensures their attachment to the pelvis. The wall of the horns of the uterus of cattle is lined with layers of muscle and mucus.

Yaytseprovody and ovaries

The structure of the uterus has been discussed, now let's talk about the egg ducts that look like a tube about 20 cm long. They are thin, twist strongly and are divided into three sections:

  • isthmus;
  • ampoule;
  • funnel.

The first site is located near the horn of the uterus, the second is in the middle, and the funnel expands near the ovaries. The edges of the third section, the oviduct, have jags, therefore, are called fringes. The inner part of the organ is lined with mucous membranes with a large number of folds. Its epithelium contains secretory and ciliated cells.

The genitals of cows include the ovaries. Their length is about 4 cm, and diameter - 2 cm. The outer side is covered with albumin. Ovaries can be detected during palpation of the pelvic area. They are located at the top of the horns of the uterus and are absolutely insensitive. The outer layer contains the follicles and corpus luteum in a cow, and the inner layer contains nerves and blood vessels.

A mature follicle can also be felt. This is a small vesicle with a diameter of about 1.5 cm, which is located on the surface of the ovary. Also in the body is the corpus luteum - a temporary gland that appears after ovulation and is responsible for the production of progesterone.

Persistent yellow body

If the corpus luteum is in the body of a non-pregnant dwelling for more than three weeks, it becomes persistent. The causes of this phenomenon are regular omissions of sexual cycles and inflammation of the genital organs of the animal. Persistent corpus luteum can be diagnosed using rectal research cows. They should be carried out twice with a break of 2.5 weeks.

When confirming the presence of a persistent corpus luteum, treatment should be started immediately. The prostaglandin drug is administered to the animal, which is calculated individually based on the weight and general condition of the animal. If the effectiveness of treatment is insufficient, in addition to prostaglandin, an injection of FLC gonadotropin is prescribed.

When hormonal preparations are also used in the treatment of mature cows, the veterinarian needs to reduce the doses of gonadotropic medications and prostaglandins. If the cow has a persistent corpus luteum, in addition to the main treatment, it is necessary to prescribe vitamin-mineral complexes. They are needed to restore ovarian function.

Why does a bull need eggs, and where are they?

Now let's talk about the device of the male genital organs. The scrotum is located between the thighs of the animal. It contains the testes and the appendage. The temperature here is optimal for the development of sperm. On the skin of the scrotum are small hairs, there are sebaceous and sweat glands. Under the skin is a septum - the muscular layer that divides the scrotum in two.

The testes (in other words - the eggs of the bulls) is the sexual organ in which sperm matures. The eggs weigh about 280-290 g, thickness 6.5 cm, and length - 13-14 cm. They are hidden in the scrotum. This organ also has an appendage in which mature spermatozoa may remain stationary for a long time. All this time they get all the necessary food. During mating, spermatozoa with the help of muscle movements fall into the vas deferens.

The seed tube and the spermatic cord

The extension of the appendage is the vas deferens or the spermatic duct. Together with the spermatic cord, it passes into the abdominal cavity, and then into the pelvic region. Near the bladder, the organ merges with the excretory duct of the vesicular gland and forms a channel that opens at the beginning of the urogenital canal.

In the wall of the vas deferens above the bladder, there are many glands. Therefore, it is more dense and has the name "glandular part". Also, the reproductive system of the bull includes the spermatic cord. This is the peritoneal crease, where the spermaduct, lymph nodes, nerves and blood vessels are located, directed to the testis.

The semen and urine of animals are removed from the male urethra (urinary canal). It starts from the bladder neck and passes to the head of the penis.

At one time, the male produces 4-5 ml of sperm containing up to 1.9 million spermatozoa.

Read more about male penis

The bull's penis is shaped like a cylinder. It is used during urination and during mating with the cow. Includes head, root and body. All parts of the organ are covered with skin, and around the beginning of the head it forms a fold - foreskin, which is also called "prepuce". With an erection, the length of the member reaches about 130-140 cm, and the diameter increases slightly. When the release of sperm comes, the tip of the penis begins to bend and turn around itself.

If the penis is not in an erect state, then the foreskin completely covers its head, reliably protecting it from mechanical damage. The prepuce includes two skin "sheets" that are connected by loose fiber. He has two muscles, one of which pulls the flesh back during arousal, and the other covers the penis.

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