During the day, a healthy heart of a cow pumps several thousand tons of blood. It is a hollow cone-shaped organ. It is located between the 3rd and 6th rib of the chest cavity. The main task of the cardiac system is to ensure the continuous movement of blood through the vessels. This organ is four-chambered; lymph nodes and vessels are located inside it. Also distinguish tones and noises of the heart, which allow for its diagnosis.
The cardiovascular system
To begin, let's talk about the cardiovascular system of cattle. Her center is the heart. Lymph and blood constantly pass through the vessels, therefore blood-lymphatic circulation occurs in the body of cows. The main organ has a very important role: providing cells and tissues with oxygen, water, various nutrients. In case of malfunction of the cardiovascular system, the metabolism suffers and the work of the internal organs is disturbed.
Blood provides the immune system and hormonal regulation, as it carries hormones and antibodies. It is the cardiovascular system that allows the cow to adapt to the constantly changing environmental conditions. Thanks to her, carbon dioxide is removed from the body.
The calf's heart develops more slowly if it leads a sedentary lifestyle.
How is the "motor"
Cattle heart has four-chamber heart. Inside it is lined with endocardium and divided by partitions into two sides. There is an atrium and ventricle.
The structure of the heart is such that these two chambers are connected to each other by atrio-gastric orifices. They are located near the border between the two sides of the body.
The atria are at the bottom of the heart. These are areas with very thin walls that take blood from the hollow and pulmonary veins and then deliver it to the left atrium.
There is also a crown chute, which is the outer septum of the two sides of the heart. On the atrium are convex formation.
The inner side of the atria has scalloped muscles, due to which the blood is well pressed out of the heart chambers.
What are the ventricles for?
The anatomy of the heart of cattle is such that the ventricles occupy a large area of this organ. The left one supplies blood to the aorta, and the right one to the pulmonary trunk. Their inner side is covered with muscular formations that push blood out.
Outside are longitudinal grooves, following to the top of the center. Inside the grooves are blood vessels. The right half of the organ is the venous, and the left is the arterial. They consist of the atrium and ventricle.
The task of the heart in calves and adult cows is to ensure the uninterrupted movement of blood through the cardiovascular system (CAS).
Due to contractions of muscles and the work of valves, blood moves through vessels only in a certain direction. First, from the atria, it enters the ventricles, and then enters the large arterial vessels.
More about the walls of the heart
The walls of the motor are formed from the endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium. The first is located inside the heart muscle and differs in different thickness at different sites. Thus, in the left side of the heart it is thicker, and in the region of the tendinous filaments it is thinner.
The endocardium contains four layers and is lined with endothelium. Then comes the subendothelial part, which consists of loose connective tissue fibers. Further away is the muscular-elastic surface, in which they connect with muscle tissue. Fibers are less pronounced in the ventricles of the heart than in the atrial endocardium.
Myocardium is formed from muscle tissue, which includes cells responsible for the functioning of nerve impulses, and cells that provide contraction of the heart muscle. Its difference from the skeletal is in the crossbars, which are located between the muscle fibers.
The epicardium is the outer shell of the organ. Its surface is covered with mesothelium, under which is the connective tissue. It consists of loose fibers.
Valve system and heartbeats
The valve system contains atrioventricular and semilunar valves. Heart valves open and close according to the contraction of the atria and ventricles. The main task of the valves is to move the blood in one direction. They are located in the atrioventricular and arterial openings. The right flap has three leaves, and the left flap has two.
During work, the atria of the blood presses the flap to the ventricle. And during the functioning of the ventricles, the blood presses, so they rise and cover the ardent ventricular openings.
Valves in the form of pockets are located at the base of the arteries. They received this name because they are formed of sash-like pockets.
The frequency of heart contractions is affected by many factors. Among them:
- age of the animal;
- health status;
It is the contractions of the heart that influence the regular and consistent work of the vessels - the pulsation of the blood. In newborn calves, about 140 beats per minute are recorded, in animals up to 1 year old - 95, in an adult cattle - about 60 beats.
How the heart cycle works
The main task of the cardiovascular system, of which the lymph nodes are a part, is the contraction of the muscles of the heart chambers in a certain rhythm.
The work of the heart is divided into several periods: tension, distillation of blood, relaxation. The voltage phase is systole, and rest is diastole. In the first case, the cavity of the "motor" is released from the blood, and in the second - is filled. When an animal is completely healthy, periods alternate for a well-defined time.
During the work of the ventricles, the blood pressure in them increases. Therefore, arthritis-ventricular valves are closed, and the opening of the semilunar valves occurs later. The result is the release of blood from the heart. When the semilunar valves open, the blood goes slower. Accordingly, myocardial contraction becomes slower.
The ventricles contract simultaneously, however, the blood pressure in them is not the same. This happens because during the stress period the left ventricle contracts more strongly than the right ventricle. This is influenced by the thickness of the myocardial membrane.
Heart Tones and Noises
If the lymph node functions imperceptibly, then during the period of relaxation and tension, sounds of the heart - tones - appear. Different systolic and diastolic tone. In the first case, sounds are generated that occur during the operation of atrioventricular valves, ventricular muscles, removal of blood from the heart. They last more than a second and are well tapped on the upper part of the organ. The second tone appears when the semilunar valves close. It is much shorter than the first and is clearly heard at the base of the heart.
There are pauses between tones. The first and second are delimited by a short break, and the second and the first are longer. When diagnosing the heart system of cattle, you can catch a pause. However, the more often the heart rate, the harder it is to distinguish its tone. Therefore, the systolic tone should be listened to at the top of the “motor”, and the diastolic tone should be heard at its base.
You can also listen to the noises of the heart. Their sound is completely different from tones. When noise is heard, it seems that something is buzzing inside, rustling and scratching. Such sounds should be alerted, as they manifest in heart disease.
Lymph nodes and organ diseases
In the inner cavity of the heart are lymph nodes and blood vessels. The latter are divided into superficial and deep. The superficial ones are under the epicardium, and the deep ones are enclosed in the myocardium and form capillary networks. The task of the lymph nodes and blood vessels is drainage. They absorb fluid from tissues and proteins, and are also responsible for the immune response.
Lymph nodes can become inflamed and thickened. This occurs with the development of infectious myocarditis, which is characterized by shortness of breath, palpitations, and pain in the joints.
Lymph nodes are strongly compacted. Sometimes an arrhythmia occurs in patients, there is a "fading" of the heart, and its rhythm is disturbed. Inflammation of the lymph nodes and blood vessels usually begins inside the heart valves and in the area of the outer sheaths that cover the organ.
If you like the article, like it.
In the comments, please share interesting information about the device and the work of the heart.