Everyone knows the face of a cow - good-natured, sweet, open. Just look at the cow, and immediately doubts disappear - this is really a representative of cattle, and there is a large, broad head, and impressive horns. In this article we will talk about the importance of this part of the body and about the organs that are there. Also consider in detail the structure of the skull of cattle, which since ancient times has caused people's interest. This attention has not weakened in our days.
Structure and features of the head of cattle
The cow's head is represented by a wide flat forehead, muzzle, short lower jaw, pronounced brows, large bright eyes and ears spread to the sides. The muzzle of the Burenka is the nose and the oral cavity.
Information from the outside world is received by the senses and analyzed by the brain of the cow. There are 5 components responsible for perception:
- sense of smell;
Eyes are responsible for vision, nose for sense of smell. Taste is transmitted through the tongue and mouth cavity. Touching occurs through the coat and skin, and sounds enter the brain of the animal, thanks to the ears.
The head of a bull and a cow, as well as any herbivore animals, has a rather interesting feature - strongly developed occipital muscles. They perform an important role - they allow you to keep your head down.
In antiquity, cows and bulls were revered by many nations and were considered sacred animals. They were depicted by painters and sculptors, many poets mentioned them in poems and ballads. The bull's muzzle was the embodiment of powerful power and royal power. This animal was found in the myths of various nations and played an important role in religion and religious rites. Thus, in ancient Greece, it was bulls that were sacrificed to Jupiter, and the main feature of the exterior of the god Dionysus was the head of a bull, symbolizing the male principle.
Skull and its structure
The skull of a cow is formed by large and strong bones that can withstand strong external pressure. According to the structure, the skull is divided into 2 parts: the cerebral and facial.
The brain part forms a cavity in which the brain of the animal is located. Accordingly, the anterior part of the muzzle is the facial bone. It includes eye sockets, nose and mouth. In the temporal region are the organs of hearing. All the bones of the cow's skull are interconnected by sutures, with the exception of the jaws, the temporal and the hyoid bone.
A newly born calf has a skull, the two parts of which are almost equal in size. However, as the animal grows, the front part is drawn out and becomes longer than the brain part. The baby has a well-developed head muscle since birth.
In addition to the above-mentioned parts, the skull of a bull and a cow is subdivided into thirteen paired and seven unpaired bones. Thus, the cerebral part is divided into: the sphenoid, occipital, and intertextal bones.
For paired include: parietal, frontal and temporal.
A characteristic sign of the head of cattle - horns
Most cattle have horns. The exception is made by specially bred breeds, in which this feature has disappeared by means of long-term selection.
In anatomy, they call rigid bone formations located in the head region of cattle and other animals. The intensity of their growth is closely related to the metabolism and is manifested by the appearance of rings. In case of violation or slowing down of metabolism, the growth of horns is delayed. This is noticeable during inferior feeding of the animal or during the period of pregnancy of the cows.
At birth, calf horns are missing. At the age of one month, small bumps - future horns can be felt on the head, and in a two-month baby they can already be clearly seen.
In large farms perform the procedure of dehydration calves aged 15-20 days. Such a measure is necessary so that adults cannot seriously damage each other.
The organs of vision and their role
The head of a bull and a cow has very expressive and big eyes. At the same time, they serve not only as decoration of animals, but also are an important analyzer of signals coming from the world around them. Orbits are located on the sides on the front of the head, in absolute symmetry to each other. Thus, cattle has monocular vision.
The eyes of a cow consist of eyeballs, auxiliary and protective organs. The eyeballs connect to the brain with the help of the optic nerves. It is through this nerve that the transmission of electrical pulses occurs from the visual organ to the brain and back. The apple of the eye is based on three shells. It is reticular, vascular and fibrous. The pupil is located in the iris.
Additional protection for the eyes are: eyelid and lacrimal gland. The protection can include lashes. They are thick and long, and at the top and bottom of the eyelids there are cilia-analyzers. With their help, the cow is protected from accidental contact with the eyes of foreign objects that can cause damage.
Mouth of a cow
The oral cavity is a complex, well-coordinated organ responsible for the intake of food necessary for the normal functioning of the animal. It is here that food is crushed, moistened with saliva, and then goes down the throat.
Inside, the entire surface of the oral cavity (except the teeth) is covered with a mucous membrane. In some individuals, this shell has pigmentation of varying intensity. The organs of the oral cavity include cheeks and lips, gums and teeth, hard and soft palate, salivary glands, tongue and tonsils.
The upper lip of the bull is connected to the nose and forms a nasolabial mirror. On it you can judge the state of the animal.
Wet and cool nose - the animal is healthy, and dry and warm - an alarm.
The upper jaw of a cow remains motionless, while the lower one is capable of making circular movements when chewing food.
Cattle tongue and teeth
The tongue of the cow is an organ composed of muscle fibers and capable of movement. It attaches to the bottom of the mouth and is immediately responsible for several functions:
- tasting incoming food;
- takes an important role in swallowing food and drink;
- feels surrounding objects;
- cares for the skin and hair of the body;
- used to contact their own kind.
The tongue is covered with many horny papillae needed to grab food and care for the body. They are also responsible for the taste sensations of the cow. The newly cowstock uses the tongue to cleanse and massage the skin of the calf.
Teeth is a special subject. For cows, a rather complex dental system is typical: the incisors, premolars, and indigenous ones are distinguished. Adults have 32 teeth, and the upper incisors are completely absent.
The calf is born already with milk teeth. There are a total of twenty. And already by one and a half years they are replaced on radical. The shape and condition of the chewing surface changes throughout life, which is often used in determining age.
Interesting is the process of tearing the grass. First, the cow grasps the fodder with the tongue and lips, then presses it to the lower incisors, jerks its head and "cuts off" the grass.
Cow teeth are perfectly adapted to the grinding of coarse vegetable fibers. Cattle, like all ruminants, swallow food without chewing. After some time, they regurgitate a portion of food, carefully grind it with molars and swallow again. This process is called chewing gum. If a cow has no chewing gum for a long time, then she is sick. Calves exhibit a ruminant process as early as the third week of life.
The structure of the ears of bulls and cows
The hearing aid itself is represented by the inner, middle and outer ear.
The outer ear is a sound absorbing part. Here one can distinguish the auricle, strong, developed muscles and the external auditory canal.
The middle ear receives sounds and is a sound-transforming organ. This includes the tympanic cavity with a chain of auditory ossicles. As in humans, the middle ear of a cow connects with the pharynx.
In the inner ear of the cow there are receptors responsible for the balance of the animal and hearing. It contains bone and webbed labyrinths.
All representatives of KRS have a well-developed ear, which is also musical. The animal perfectly remembers individual sounds, shades of voice, and even songs. A cow is able to distinguish the play of one musical instrument from another and react accordingly.
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