Literate cutting bull, cutting the body of a cow or calf, it is quite troublesome. But still, with a great desire, you can overcome this science. Since Soviet times, almost every meat department has an incomprehensible for most people a diagram indicating the main economic parts of beef carcass. Let's be honest, only a professional will be able to cut the carcass on it, and we will now go through the main stages of such cutting and analyze what particular carcasses are intended for.
Slaughter and initial cutting
When slaughtering a lot of factors are taken into account and it is not worth doing this without special training. Cattle runners in villages and meat processing plants have always been valued. When slaughtering it is desirable that the stomach and especially the scar was empty.
When the cow is clogged and ready for butchering, the first thing to do is to properly remove the internal organs. Ideally, after slaughter, entrails should be removed within 45 minutes, otherwise the quality of the meat may suffer. The cow sternum is cut for excavation and even if the scar was empty, the esophagus is immediately tied up. The fact is that the scar contains microflora, which, hitting the pulp, can spoil it.
Then the gallbladder is removed, here you need to know the anatomy of the cattle. If bile accidentally spreads, it must be immediately removed and the place washed with potassium permanganate. After that, the insides are pulled out and sorted.
Liver, kidney and heart are by-products, they go into business. The stomach, intestines and other organs are almost not used in cooking. Do not forget to pour plenty of salt to the skin, otherwise it will spoil. It is desirable that the carcass before cutting hung on the hook for several days.
The main stages of cutting
According to the rules, cows should be butchered in a clean, well-disinfected room at an air temperature not higher than 10ºС.
Cutting is a technological scheme of processing consisting of several stages, after which the meat already comes either to the store counter or directly to the kitchen. The process begins with chipping the carcass into separate parts. First of all, the carcass is divided into 2 halves across the spine. Then these halves are cut into quarters, after which the separate parts are cut off and the meat is removed from them.
The process of cutting meat from the bones among professionals is called boning. When boning, everything is completely cut off from the bone, no cartilage, and especially pulp should not remain, but there are exceptions. In this case, the instruction requires that the depth of random cuts on the pulp be no more than 10 mm.
After deboning is finished, the bones of the skeleton are laid aside and proceed to the stripping. This process is designed to give the meat a marketable appearance. Scraping begins with cutting out tendons and cartilage. Then, thick and coarse films are carefully cut off, and excess fat goes behind them. Stripping is completed by trimming the edges (thin and sharp edges of the flesh).
Cutting the front of the carcass
The skinned carcass is cut in half for the 13th vertebra, with such a scheme, the entire rib sector remains in front, so you can not count the vertebrae, but chop it right behind the ribs.
It should be noted here that a cow, calf or bull is cut into 4 parts. First across, as mentioned above, and then each half is still cut along the ridge.
In front of the cow, the neck, the thick edge of the back and the scapula with the subscapularis are considered the most valuable. Behind them comes the sternum foreskin and the flesh of the forelimbs. The blade part is separated first. After that, starting from the last cervical vertebra, the cervical part is cut out and we have an entire back and thoracic region.
Boning the neck with a spatula is performed completely, to clean bones. The result is a cervical and scapular flesh. Which in turn is divided into shoulder and shoulder.
The cutting of the dorsal-thoracic sector begins with the removal of the sternum, with part of the ribs and cartilages remaining on the sternum. Next, the meat is removed layer and cut along. Near the ridge of a cow there is a thick edge from which the subscapular flesh is then cut off. And all that on the ribs, called the edge.
Cutting the back of the carcass
The most valuable meat in an animal is tenderloin and it is located just in the back, specifically in the post-thaw sector. In general, the back part is divided into 2 sectors - lumbar and zadnazovy. In the lumbar sector, the thin edge is the most valuable. Slight edge is slightly less valued, and the pashina rating closes.
If a cow is butchered at a meat processing plant, the cutting is removed there first, and then the carcass is sent to the store or to the market. So when you buy whole carcass meat, this point should be negotiated. Because even in the Soviet guests such a sale was allowed and by law you would not carp.
After you have dealt with the cutting, only the back leg remains in the back end sector. It consists of 4 meat pieces and processing begins with the removal of the upper and outer parts, after which the side part is removed and the inner part is cut off.
There is another interesting point associated with meat processing plants. For large volumes, for ease of transportation, it is allowed to chop the carcass in half not along the 13th rib, but through 11. As a result, the front part remains without 2 edges. The cutting scheme does not change here, but when buying half of the carcass it can be important.
Division by grade
Every housewife knows that there is beef of different varieties. But as practice shows, for some reason, most people believe that the division into varieties refers to the degree of freshness of cow meat.
In reality, the variety speaks only of which part of the carcass the flesh is cut. For the freshness of these parts, the beef variety is irrelevant. In total there are 3 varieties - this is the highest, first and second. So that you do not make a mistake when choosing, we have prepared a short list:
- Spinal pulp near the ridge - the highest grade;
- Sternum - the highest grade;
- Filet and fry - top grade;
- Bonfire and rump - the highest grade;
- Spatula and subscapularis - 1st grade;
- Neck and groin - 1 grade;
- Front and rear shanks - 2 grade;
- Zarez - 2 grade.
Beef varieties are certainly an important, but not the primary factor when choosing. First, remember - calves are always better than adult bulls or cows. Calves' meat is pink and soft. The shoulder or neck of the calf type 1 will almost certainly be much tastier than the back or stern of the old cow, although formally they are of the highest grade. And secondly, it is better to take your meat for each dish, and we will discuss this further.
Cooking science is comprehensive and dozens of reputable volumes have been written on this subject, plus each cook has his own opinion. We will go through the truisms.
Neck and slaughtered, due to the presence of tendons required, the primary processing or longer cooking. From these parts you get a good goulash, they also go to mince and broth for the first courses.
Rump - clean, but slightly harsh meat. Great for all sorts of beef stew. You can fry, but it is advisable to steam.
Back and rib parts - the back is used for frying or baking in one piece. The meat on the ribs is a tasty thing, but here it is better to take veal.
Cutting - suitable for everything, but most often used for steaks, chops and frying or baking a whole piece.
Rump and adjacent parts - usually stewed, baked or boiled, also from this meat you get good stuffing.
The flank, the edging, and so on - goes in chopped form or into broths.
Spatula - from this meat you can cook most of the popular dishes, from steak to meatballs.
Podbedrok, shank and shank - from this set it turns out great jelly, but besides it you can cook dishes from minced meat and goulash.
A couple of tips from practice
Any meat is sold either chilled or frozen. So, during freezing, the integrity of the fibers is broken and the pulp loses some of its qualities. That is why frozen foods are cheaper. Plus, it is not recommended to defrost beef in water, only outdoors.
When cutting, thin films are not removed from the pulp and if you see a weathered and slightly wrinkled film - this is not a marriage. When the film is removed, the meat will take proper form.
To give the presentation of merchants often sprinkle pulp with water. If you notice a beautiful piece that lies in a pool of water, it means either defrosting beef, or not the first freshness and poured water.
Baby veal has a bright pink color. Old cows and bulls have a dark maroon flesh. Also, age can be determined by the color of the fat layer, in young animals fat is white, and in old animals it is yellow.
Of course, this is not all the information relating to beef, because in one article it is impossible to reflect everything. But we tried to highlight the most important from the point of view of practitioners. If you like the material, put the likes. By sharing it with friends, you will do someone a good service.