Proper cow digestion contributes to the rapid absorption of food and saturation of the body with nutrients. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) includes the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, four chambers of the stomach, intestines. The liver also takes an active part in digestion. Feed masses move along the gastrointestinal tract at a speed of about 4 m per day. The completion of all stages is the release of processed food through the anus.
Description of the digestive system
First, let's understand the physiology of digestion. This is a process consisting of reactions occurring in the digestive tract. They break down products to the simplest elements that are spread throughout the body and enter the blood. As a result, the cow receives all the necessary vitamins and minerals, grows and gives healthy milk.
The cows are ruminants, so a large number of microorganisms are in their stomachs. They are perfectly adjacent to each other and can benefit from it.
Thus, the conditions in which the cow lives have a positive effect on the nutrition and reproduction of microorganisms. They, in turn, help to digest food. This process is not possible in animals with a single-chamber stomach.
Bacteria perform part of their work in the foregloves. Subsequent processes do not differ much from those that occur in single-chamber stomachs. Microbes contribute to the processing of both grass food and grain.
Briefly about the device of the stomach
The physiological process of digestion begins after the absorption of food, which follows the pharynx, passes through the esophagus and is in the stomach.
The esophagus is also necessary for the waste gases, the excessive amount of which can lead to serious problems with the health of the animal. The stomach of a cow is four-chambered. It includes:
- a little book;
Like small ruminants (MDCs), the first two divisions are foreskins. Their functionality is very important for digestion. Here food accumulates, is broken down by microbes and is digested. Then the body gets the decay products. The digestive process after the release of feed from the anvil is no different from the activity in the stomachs with a single camera. When food is processed in a book and abomasum, it enters the intestines, and from them is excreted through the anus. In a calf, the digestion process is the same as in monogastric animals.
The digestive system of cows is arranged in such a way that after chewing food turns to the throat. This cavity with strong muscles, which is a bridge between the oral cavity and the esophagus. The latter is a tube through which the feed enters the stomach and back for chewing. It consists of skeletal muscles.
In the stomach, food is fermented with the help of microorganisms. The coarse fibers are digested for a long time, so they spit back into the cattle’s mouth to chew once more. Then the food is re-swallowed.
Some fermented products are in the circulatory system immediately after treatment in the rumen. Each type of feed needs a certain time to digest in the first chamber of the stomach. If the product is liquid, it is processed for about 10 hours. When food fibers are coarser, they can sometimes be in the rumen for up to two days.
After being digested in this chamber, the product contains tiny elements of fermented food and a variety of protein represented by bacteria that have multiplied in the stomach.
Processes in the chambers of the stomach
The hem of an adult animal holds about 190 liters of products. This is the largest part of the stomach, comprising about 80% of its volume. Grid can hold about 10 liters. It is called this because its inner shell is similar to the cells in which foreign particles are trapped in the proddlets.
In the rumen, the food is moisturized and filtered. The walls of the body are continuously reduced, so the feed is constantly moving. If the digestion process is correct, then the food is in layers in the chamber. Below all are fine particles that have the greatest weight. Slightly higher in the cicatricial juice is light coarse food, and above it - the formed gases.
Every minute fluctuations occur in the organ, during which the lower mass of food rises and ends up in the cicatricial juice. Thus, the processes inside the rumen allow you to smoothly filter light food through coarse and juice, thanks to which the feed quickly breaks down into many elements.
For successful digestion, cows need to be given coarse food. For example, high-quality hay or silage. This product filters other food in the rumen, and also supports its movements, as it causes the body to contract.
What happens next
After digestion in the rumen food is in the grid. This camera sorts it and, if necessary, belches. The net acts as a sieve through which only thoroughly chopped food can pass. Coarse fibers are again transferred to the rumen, where additional digestion occurs.
In the book feed goes another sorting. If its particles are not sufficiently crushed, they will not be able to advance further. The book is continuously shrinking, so feed particles become even smaller. Also in this chamber is the process of absorption of water and fatty acids.
In the rennet, food is treated with rennet. It includes pepsin, chymosin and lipase. Juice is secreted smoothly, because the food that has been digested in the rumen is constantly entering this chamber.
During the day, about 60 liters of juice are produced in the bass abomasum.
Processes in the small intestine
After processing in the rennet, the food is in the intestine of a cow, which is about 45 m long and about 4.5 cm in diameter. It includes the duodenal, jejunum and ileum. Thin has very active cells, it is lined with tiny papillae, thanks to which it is able to absorb various elements. That is why it is the absorption of nutrients.
First, the feed is digested in the intestines, and then it turns out at its end and begins to be absorbed into the body. The walls of the body emit special enzymes, thanks to which all carbohydrates and fats in food are digested. Also, the feed mass in the small intestine is processed by the liver bile, which is here through a special duct. Bile helps the body absorb fats.
What role does the liver play
One of the main organs of digestion of cows is the liver. It performs the most important mission - forms glucose. Digestion products enter the liver, where they are thoroughly processed. Here the products of the work of microbes, which are in the colon, as well as all kinds of medicinal formations, the production of protein breakdown, are neutralized.
In addition, bile enters the intestine from the liver, which plays a huge role in the digestive process. It is thanks to this substance that fats are digested and absorbed into the body.
Bile also enhances the work of the elements of pancreatic juice, which has a positive effect on the processing of the mass of feed. The substance is in the duodenum 10 minutes after a meal. The secretion of bile lasts several hours and is completed only after the last part of the feed passes processing in the stomach and leaves it.
What happens in the colon
Then, during the digestion process, cattle food is in the cecum, which is part of the colon. It is located away from the digestive tract. Here the feed passes microbial fermentation again.
Also, the large intestine consists of the colon, which is divided into two sections: the spiral and proximal. The colonic part plays a minor role in the digestion of food and the assimilation of nutrients. Its main task is the formation of excrement.
Here continues the active absorption of liquids and mineral salts. This happens despite the fact that the walls of the body are not equipped with any devices that can absorb nutrients. After passage through the colon, processed food in the form of excrement comes out through the anal opening - the anus.
Features digestion calves
In calves, digestion is similar to the process that occurs in cattle, which has a single-chamber stomach. In addition, they still have no ruminant period. When a baby is born, its scar, mesh and book are less than ½ rennet. That is why a large role in the process of food processing is given to the esophageal chute.
When drinking milk, his muscles contract, and the edges form a sort of "tube", which becomes an extension of the esophagus. When the youngster swallows a large amount of liquid during feeding, it spreads the edges of the gutter, therefore it falls into the abomasum. Since the scar does not function at full strength, when it enters the milk starts to rot, causing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
As animals grow, the chute plays an ever-smaller role in digestion. A large amount of fluid is in the rumen. Also, an active growth of the foreglobe begins. Three months after the birth of the calf, they are several times larger than the abomasum. When the young are six months old, their digestion becomes the same as that of an adult cattle.
Some nuances of the process
In addition, it is worth noting that the digestion of cattle adapts to the food it consumes. The gland secretion is affected by the type of feed. If you feed an animal with a high carbohydrate content for a long time, the secretion will be less, but the enzyme amylase will begin to form.
To make the secretion more, cows need to offer food that contains many proteins. To increase the activity of microorganisms in the stomach, livestock should consume rough products containing easily tolerated carbohydrates.
Need to be careful with feeding silage. If you give it in too large quantities, the activity of microorganisms will slow down, and the fermentation processes will be weaker.
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