The best breeding rabbits are not the ones that only look attractive. In addition to the magnificent wool, strong muscles, active behavior, the animals are characterized by indicators of the offspring obtained from them. This applies to individuals of either sex. At the same time, for the female, the milkiness, fertility and immunity, which the pups receive, come to the fore among the traits. Males are extremely important body constitution. An animal with congenital malformations will not fit the tribe.
Strong paws and wide chest
To begin, let us figure out how to choose adult producers, and what signs to pay attention to. We single out common positive traits for both sexes of breeding rabbits, regardless of the breed:
- active behavior;
- lively interest in the partner;
- developed muscles of the chest and limbs;
- healthy elastic skin;
- coat corresponding to the breed;
- tightened belly.
The first impression of the proposed breeding rabbit is deceptive, so you should not hurry. Evaluating external qualities. Pay attention to the chest. If this part of the skeleton is narrow, then you should not buy an animal. Take the animal in your hands and feel the power of paws. The developed muscles will immediately be felt.
Do not forget to study the standards of the breed, which representative you inspect. Then drooping ears will not be taken as a defect if the breeding rabbit belongs to the lop-eared.
Indicators for male and female
For males of all breeds, normal moderately arched back is considered normal. Defect - narrow loin. Look at the rabbit in full face. If the front paws are flat (not similar to the letter X or O), it means that they are set correctly.
Pay attention to croup. When the bones do not bulge, the breeding rabbit looks rounded. This is an important feature in the selection of a tribe. Protruding bones are inherited by offspring, so in no case do not take such an animal for breeding.
In evaluating the breeding females, the signs described above are also taken into account, but the milkiness is also determined. This is done according to the results of the past 3-4 okrolov, weighing and recording the total weight of offspring at the age of three weeks.
The following indicators for breeding rabbit - the number of cubs in each area and the mortality of young. But these figures are not more important than milkiness, which characterizes the growth rate of rabbits.
Variety of constitutions
Given the diversity of rabbit breeds, the constitution of animals is divided into three types. Those that are grown for meat and skins are referred to as mesosomal. These eared animals have averages in the length and width of the body, the volume of the head, neck, paws and tail. Among the fur varieties - black-brown, butterfly, chinchilla, rex. The croup of these rabbits is in the shape of a cylinder, thick wool with shine.
For breeding rabbits of the Eyrisom type, the characteristic features are a wide body (shaped like a barrel), a powerful and deep chest, the head is also wide, and the limbs are short. Such a constitution is preferable for representatives of the tribe who belong to downy breeds or those who are bred solely for meat. A distinctive feature - a developed rump and thick legs. The female has at least eight nipples.
It is undesirable for breeding rabbits to be of the leptosome type (with the exception of breeds of gray and white giants). The constitutional features are rare wool and a long body. Narrow chest, elongated legs, head and neck, slow development and weight gain are unacceptable. Ushastiki with such severe symptoms are not suitable for breeding. But they are used for "dilution of blood" in small breeds in order to enlarge the offspring.
Determine the index of down
Now let us tell you how to correctly determine the type of constitution for the breeding rabbit. Experienced breeders easily do it by eye. But do not trust this assessment. It is better to learn how to independently calculate the index of downwardness.
To do this, measure the circumference of the chest of the rabbit, focusing on the shoulder blades. The second measure is the length of the body, a centimeter is applied to the first cervical vertebra and stretched to the beginning of the tail. Then the first indicator should be divided by the second. The result is an index of downwardness.
To express the result obtained as a percentage, it must be multiplied by 100. If the test rabbit belongs to the Eyrisome type, then you will get more than 64%. Ushastik, which issued the index 50-60% or less, has leptosome addition. The most balanced type of constitution of the animal, the mesosomal, will show the numbers 60-64.
Winter rabbits - the strongest
Tribal work consists of several stages. Begin the selection of rabbits at the age of 2-3 months. Usually during this period, the young are taken away from the mother. This takes into account the pronounced signs of the breed, the state of "fur coat", the level of appetite, the constitution of the body. But the most difficult thing is to take into account the innate characteristics of this family.
Sometimes it is difficult to establish the hereditary characteristics of a rabbit in the absence of data on grandparents, great-grandfathers, brothers and sisters. For example, such an important feature, as milkiness, is detected only according to data received from relatives. Until the moment of receiving offspring from a particular individual, it remains hidden. For example, if there are infertility or high mortality in the genus, then you should not experiment with such baby rabbits for reproduction.
We advise on the tribe to select rabbits who were born in the winter. They fall on the best time when there is an abundance of fresh nutritious greens. And the upcoming spring and summer provide the young with the best conditions to get stronger in cold weather.
The best of the best
At the second stage of work, those selected for the Uashasti tribe are divided, determining the best of the best. In the first place are the qualities of each individual. They look at the rate of increase in weight in rabbits, physical activity and general condition, the thickness of the coat and the uniformity of its covering of the entire skin integument. Appearance comes to the fore.
The third phase of selection involves an assessment at the age when the rabbits reach puberty. In different breeds, it fluctuates slightly, but in general it comes in 6-8 months. Remember that it is undesirable to have a female and a male of different eared breeds, and why, you will find out in the article "About crossing of rabbits of different breeds".
Before mating, the female tracks the regularity of the onset of the hunt. The male is assessed for intermittent breathing during intercourse. Rabbit should not choke.
At the same stage, an assessment is given of the breeding female after the roundabout. Record the number of rabbits brought, calculate milkiness, monitor the manifestation of maternal instincts.
About the stomach, back and lower back
Choosing a rabbit (or adult animals) for a tribe must adhere to certain rules. A narrow chest is considered a defect and speaks of poor health. A broad - a big minus for the male sire. Typically, a characteristic characteristic of phlegmatic rabbits with a loose constitution. The volume of this body part must meet breed standards.
Pay attention to the lower back and back. The lines should be smooth. A serious drawback is the hunchback, which indicates rickets. The same, if the back sagged. On the meat of the rabbit will tell the lower back. When it is long and excessively wide, it is very bad.
The ideal is the belly with a contour running parallel to the back and floor. Paws must be completely covered with wool. A bald patch is a sign of poddermatitis or susceptibility to this disease. Details in the article "On the treatment of poddermatitis in rabbits."
Mutually exclusive features
The listed rules for selecting breeding rabbits do not always succeed in all at once. And some may even exclude each other. Therefore, you need to focus on the most important of them in each case. Many of the listed signs are noticeable already in the early age of the rabbit. For example, changing the weight of the cub.
But, taking as a basis the indicator in grams, do not forget to take into account the size of the nest in which the eared bird was born and raised. Usually the largest rabbits are obtained from those specimens that came from small litters. Do not risk, focusing only on this feature, and then you will get an individual with low fecundity.
An important aspect in breeding rabbits is balanced feeding of animals. Hygiene and proper sanitary conditions have a positive effect on the disclosure of hereditary qualities. With poor content, natural tribal selection occurs. Stronger individuals gain an advantage, but often they do not have the qualities that the owner would like to consolidate in the resulting offspring.
Control weight with proper nutrition.
Feed the breeding rabbits should be according to the rules to prevent obesity or exhaustion. Excess food adversely affects the reproductive abilities of the male, which becomes sedentary. The appearance of excess fat makes phlegmatic and rabbit. Nutrition requires a complete set - cereals, coarse and juicy food, concentrates and supplements of vitamins and minerals.
In no case can breed rabbits be fed only with grass or vegetables. It is allowed to give carrots, cucumbers, zucchini, peas. From fruit - apples and pears, watermelons and melons. Both partners, selected for breeding, young nettle and dandelions are useful. Clover and celery also go for a delicacy. These plants are scalded with boiling water before serving.
Hay is present in the diet constantly. Keep the product dry. Useful for breeding animals using roughage. It is the straw received from stalks of peas, lentils, oatmeal. It is better to mix the ingredients in a concentrated feed (5: 1). Feed this mixture should be no more than once a day.
The use of maple, birch or lime trees by tribal rabbits alternates with eating straw. Suitable acacia, apple, poplar, willow.
The experience of breeding animals
The tribal age of the rabbit does not last long. This is 6-8 okrolov, after establishing a constant indicator of milkiness. As soon as the number of offspring brought in by some genera decreases, it is rejected. Another sign that shows a weakening of health is a deterioration in condition when feeding babies with milk. If with a balanced diet, the female loses weight and looks exhausted, she ceases to be used on the tribe.
However, the individual qualities of the female individual are important. Any of them may begin to age earlier or later. Here the rabbit breeder decides when it’s time to change the breeding female. Characteristics for culling:
- atrophy of some mammary glands;
- decrease in live weight of young;
- the female becomes sedentary and often crushes the rabbits;
- consecutive two failed okrola.
The presence of one or all of these signs at once is a clear reason for culling the breeding rabbit. The male is used as long as he shows sexual activity and gives quality offspring.
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