High-quality harvesting of feed for cattle allows you to make food more nutritious and easily digestible by the body. Pretreatment of products disinfects them, improves technological properties. Some methods can be used in the home subsidiary, and others - only on large farms, since special equipment is required. In this article we will talk more about the most effective methods of processing products for feeding livestock.
What processing methods are used
Preparation of feed for cows is carried out in three ways: mechanical, chemical and biological. In the first case, the diet is mixed, crushed, crushed, in order to improve technological quality and improve palatability. Mechanical methods have a positive effect on the nutritional value of the menu, while chemical methods increase the digestibility of nutrients. These include acid and alkaline treatment. Biological methods have a good effect on the digestibility of food. Among them:
- yeast (feed yeast used).
All three methods increase the taste characteristics and increase the content of high-grade protein. In addition, hard-to-digest carbohydrates are broken down and become simpler, so they are better absorbed by the body. It is permissible to use one or several methods at the same time. It all depends on the type of feed that needs to be processed before feeding.
Preparation of concentrated feed
Grinding is the most popular way that you must use. If you give the cattle unground grain, then at least 30% of the vitamins are not digested. Soft grains can be ground more coarsely, medium ones should be max. 2 mm in diameter, and hard grains - 1 mm. Bulls manufacturers can be fed whole oats, because it tones the body of the animal.
Heaps and cows can be given thoroughly steamed oats a month before giving birth. It has a positive effect on the distribution, as well as increases the fat content and taste of milk.
Humidity of forage should be a maximum of 15%. If you greatly exceed this figure, grind the grain will be hard. There will be problems with its storage, the performance of the used machines for processing will decrease.
Technology toasting grain
The use of heat treatment of grain is carried out before feeding the calves to eliminate digestive problems and develop chewing muscles. Roasted grains become tastier, and starch is absorbed better. Thermally process peas, wheat, barley.
Grain must be left in water to make it swollen. After that, it is poured on a baking sheet and heated, constantly stirring. The grain should be light brown in color. If there is no need to process a large amount of product, you can use a regular cast iron stove. It is better to cook large volumes of feed in special high-temperature units. Such grain can be given to calves on the 5th day of life, starting from 30 g per day. Each time, the volume of grain should be increased and increased to 120 g per day.
How is malting performed
During malting, heat treatment of cattle feeds with hot water is performed. This method is used when it is necessary to increase the sugar content in wheat, barley, and rye (silage cannot be treated with a sedimentation agent). Processing should be carried out only in a warm room with a temperature of at least 18 degrees. Food is poured in a thin layer in special boxes, then poured boiling water 90 degrees. Per 1 kg of grain requires about 2 liters of fluid. After this, the products must be tightly closed with a lid and left for 4 hours. The temperature of the water should be maintained at about 60 degrees.
To make the malting process more efficient, you need to add barley malt. In this case, the volume of malt sugar will increase, so the product will become sweeter. For the manufacture of malt you need to soak the grain, pour it into a box and leave it for 3-4 days in a warm room. When sprouts make their way, the grain must be dried, ground and used for malting.
For cattle fodder yeast is very useful. It also does not hurt to process food by yeast technology. This process saturates the feed with protein, vitamins and lactic acid bacteria. Products will become more tasty and less calorie. Today, there are several methods of yeast: sponge, ferment, bestopny. The first option is more convenient.
First you need to take 1/5 of the crushed products prepared for processing. If the total product weight is 100 kg, 20 kg is used. Products need to be poured into a barrel and pour 45 liters of water.
Also, 1 kg of yeast diluted with water is added to the container. The mixture should be mixed to thick consistency, then covered with a lid and left for 5 hours in a room with room temperature. Dough need to stir every half hour. After the specified time, you must add the remaining 80 kg of feed and pour 100 liters of water, then leave for another 3 hours. During this period, the mixture is constantly mixed.
Bezoparny and starter method
With the straight-through method, not fodder yeast will be required, but 1 kg of baker's. They are mixed with 5 liters of water. In the box you need to pour 180-190 liters of warm water and add yeast. After that, 100 kg of dry food is poured into the container. The mixture should be stirred every 25-30 minutes. The process of yeast lasts about 8 hours, after which the products are ready for use.
For the yeast starter process, less is required. You need to take half the food prepared for processing and pour so much warm water so that after mixing you get a thick talker. After that, for 1 kg of feed add 10 g of yeast diluted in water.
Leaven should be left for 6 hours, stirring it every 25 minutes. The resulting tool must be divided in half. Add one half to a large container and mix with the remaining feed and water (1.2 liters of water are required per kg). Fermented food is left for 4 hours and stirred regularly. The second part is used to make a new leaven.
Micronization of grain in the farm
Micronization is most often carried out on large farms, since it requires treatment with infrared rays. Special machines are used - micronizers. Purchasing them for a private enterprise will be costly.
Infrared rays process the grain, causing the vibration of the molecules inside it. The process provokes friction, with which internal heat is generated. The result is a swollen grain that becomes soft and begins to crack.
During micronisation, structural changes occur with proteins and carbohydrates, as a result of which about 98% of the starch is broken down into sugar. Therefore, such preparation of feed for feeding improves their digestibility and assimilation by the body.
How to silage vegetable raw materials
High-quality silage can be prepared from a mixture of plant materials of peas and oats. Product quality is affected by packing density. The denser it is, the finer the raw material should be. If the humidity is not more than 70%, the plant should be cut into 1 cm segments. The higher the humidity, the longer the segments should be.
If the moisture content of the mass is 75%, it should be laid especially tightly, and at a humidity of 80% - moderately, otherwise a lot of juice will start to stand out. Moderate tamping is used if it is necessary to fill up the repository faster. The slower it is filled, the stronger the mass warms up.
Used storage should be loaded on the sides to the top level, and in the center - 75 cm above the edge. Then it is covered with a film so that it covers the walls and the bottom of the ditches along them. The film needs to be fixed, and from above fix 10 cm of the earth. After 30 days, the products will be ready. Together with the silage, animals need to be given fodder yeast to make the product more nutritious.
Coarse plants should not be crushed too large, otherwise the product will be unsuitable for feeding.
Feed crushing method
Grain processing is also carried out by the method of conditioning. This method today is the most progressive, but it cannot be used on a silo. Before conditioning, moisture-heat treatment should be carried out (steamed for 10 minutes at a temperature of 85 degrees) in order to improve the taste of the feed and increase its palatability. After crushing, the grain becomes more nutritious, and the animals' body spends less energy on the digestion of food.
During flattening, the complex sugar in the grain breaks down, and the starch changes its structure, therefore it becomes more susceptible to the effects of enzymes. When carrying out the process, the moisture content of the feed should be no more than 25%, and the gap between the conditioner teeth should be maximum 0.55 mm.
The processed grain is easier to digest by the body and is distributed throughout the scar. As a result, the body receives all the necessary proteins and carbohydrates. In addition, the use of rolled feed increases the yield of cows. That's just the grain for processing to clean up 2 weeks earlier.
Basic Secrets of Flaking
This method is similar to the previous one, but the difference is that the steaming is carried out for about 14 minutes at a temperature of 94 degrees. The time spent on steaming depends on the type of grain and its moisture. If it is required to process corn kernels with humidity of 15%, time decreases by 5 minutes. And at a humidity of 11% - increases to 13 minutes. Processing of barley and oats takes 12 minutes.
The result of the flaking is a soft, flocculent substance, which is well absorbed in the body of a cattle. This is achieved by exposure to moisture and high temperatures. The introduction of such a diet provokes fermentation in the rumen of cattle, resulting in an increase in the level of propionic acid.
It has a positive effect on digestion and nutrient digestion. The starch digestibility depends on how flattened the grain is. If it is processed insufficiently, it will be difficult for the body to digest the starch. Products after flaking can be stored for several days, if the humidity in the room does not exceed 13%. Otherwise, the food will be covered with mold.
Deacidification with soda ash
Increased acidity is harmful to digestion, so you need to use deoxidizing feed. Soda ash is most commonly used because it dissolves quickly in water. To process moderately sour silage, you need to prepare a 1% soda solution. If the silage is very acidic, the solution should be 2-3%. To do this, 10 liters of water need to add 250 g of soda. The finished solution is moistened with raw materials and given to the cows in half an hour.
On 1 kg of feed you need about 150 g of solution. After deoxidation silage begins to smell of grass. If the cattle are given a lot of silage corn, it should be treated with dry soda ash. The recipe is simple: half an hour before feeding, the product must be filled with soda and thoroughly mixed.
If you like the article, like it.
In the comments, please share your experiences with cattle feed processing.