Watching what a cow drinks is not just out of curiosity. For the buren, it is not any liquid that is suitable. And for various reasons, it can completely abandon the use of water. Then there will be a real catastrophe, because for the formation of milk in the udder a certain presence of moisture in the animal's body must be present. And, of course, the rates of consumption vary depending on the breed, age and conditions of detention. To understand what is possible and what is not, in organizing the watering of cattle, our article will help.
Water balance arithmetic
The amount of fluid you drink during the day for each individual individual, even if the cows are the same age and breed, may differ. So, for dairy cows, on average, you need 5 liters per 1 kg of feed. That is, if the daily rate of roughage is 8 kg, then 40 liters of water will be required. This amount will provide an opportunity to receive up to 40 liters of milk.
But you still need to feed the body of the cow itself. So, if we are talking about stall or tethered content, then you need to get the right liquid at the expense of succulent feed or additional amount of water poured into the drinker.
In the summertime, when a cow grazes on pasture and pinches grass all day, it is difficult to calculate the fluid entering her body with juice. However, according to statistics, it is from 20 to 40 liters per day.
For cows meat direction calculation is different. But in the end, he can come to the same figure due to a larger amount of feed, which is issued to increase the mass. For the average rate, 3-4 liters of water are used for every kg of dry food.
Reasons for not water
Cows may not drink water for the following reasons:
- too cold;
- difficult access to the drinker;
- unpleasant taste impurities;
- the presence of a foreign object in the stomach;
- clogged stomach.
If the water temperature is less than 8 degrees, the cattle begins to use it in reduced volumes. The cow also drinks less if the liquid is too warm. The optimum temperature is 12-15 degrees.
For a calf, degrees are much higher - from 15 to 30.
The stable method of keeping cows allows you to control the temperature in the drinkers. And if animals are kept in a box on the farm with a loose method, then the most convenient solution would be to organize auto-heating. Then the water will always have the desired temperature.
The rates of water consumption, watering frequency and temperature are shown in the table:
Herring will help
The content in the water of any impurities that have a smell, can scare off cattle from water. The best solution would be to take it from wells or springs. In winter, heating is obligatory, since the icy liquid contributes to the development of colds and leads to a decrease in milk yields.
In a barn or corral environment, access to the trough should be free. It is necessary to remove all unnecessary items that make it difficult for the cattle to approach the water.
Weather conditions also affect the amount of fluid you drink. If usually during the day a cow can drink 10 liters at a time, then during wind or rain the volume decreases by 30-40%. Accordingly, the milk yield will decrease by the same amount. Especially weather conditions respond to heifers.
Folk way will tell you what to do if a cow consumes little water or does not drink at all. Its essence is as follows. An ordinary herring will rub the nasolabial mirror on the animal. It causes thirst.
But this method is good only if you are confident in the usual capriciousness of the cow. It happens that she swallows a foreign object and refuses liquid for this reason. Or she got a stomach. Then you need to urgently contact the vet.
About drinking bowls indoors and outdoors
For watering animals use special containers. In large farms with tethered livestock use leveled system of watering. A flow-through valve is provided for control. In drinking bowls there is always the right amount of water - the law of communicating vessels is used. For every fifty cows - a tank of 40 liters, and 13 liters of liquid are placed in each drinker. If necessary, the bowl can be attached to the wall. But in any case, a cow, even on a leash, should freely reach the water.
For cattle free stall suitable group drinkers. In addition to their use in boxes, it is possible to install these containers on pastures. They can be heated or not. Double polyethylene walls with thermal insulation allow you to keep the desired temperature for a long time. The optimal size of the bowl is 90x40x40 cm.
For convenience, the drinker can be installed on a pedestal. In order to comply with sanitary standards, they must be cleaned regularly and disinfected once a week.
Other liquids and water additives
In addition to ordinary water, cows drink and products bred in it. For example, bran before use is dissolved in water. Normal dosage - from 2 to 3 kg per bucket. The calves after calving after an hour are given salted water (100 g per 10 l), warmed to 25 degrees. Some feed (wheat, barley, feed) steamed with boiling water to make them softer.
The first liquid of a newborn calf is colostrum. It is given 2-3 hours after birth. Volume is calculated based on weight. Usually it is 10%. The next feeding is in 6-7 hours in the same amount.
But the maximum allowable rate of cow colostrum is 3 liters at a time. It happens that the calf can drink more, but do not give it to overeat from the first days of life. Feeding is repeated 3-4 times a day. Thus, the feeding continues for a week, after which they switch to milk.
For calves, as they grow, the amount of milk produced is reduced. So, if two-week babies drank 7 l per day, then by the age of three months each calf drinks no more than 5 l
This is due to their growing up and the fact that they now drink more water in combination with various foods. You can read more about growing young stock in the article “Feeding calves with milk”.
In some farms cow water is given in unlimited quantities (excluding periods of possible illness or a special physiological economy). And it is quite acceptable. Sometimes unlimited mode is considered normal and when feeding calves with milk. But we advise to adhere to the recommended standards: for the age of 5 weeks - 7 liters, 7 weeks - 6 liters, 8 weeks - 5 liters, 11 weeks - 2 liters. Gradual weaning has a beneficial effect on the development of the baby.
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In the comments write about your observations of the cow at the watering.