Knowing how to feed a cow in each of the periods of its life, a farmer can significantly increase the yield in his farm, get healthy, strong offspring and just have a prosperous herd. Feeding a pregnant cow is different from a highly productive diet, and a winter diet from a summer one. We will talk about why it is so important to follow the rules in drawing up a diet for animals, and how to develop a good menu for your cows.
Short on types of feed
For the most part, the diet of cows consists of vegetable feed, which can be of several types:
- juicy (roots, greens, silage);
- rough (straw, hay and chaff);
- concentrated (cereal).
There are also mixtures, feed, mineral and vitamin supplements. With proper planning of the diet, animals receive a maximum of nutrients.
For feeding of cows, dairy and highly productive cows always use full-feed, balancing additives, concentrates, the main task of which is to maintain the correct ratio of substances in animals.
Of course, in feeding any cows, whether it be milk, heifer or heel, you need to use all kinds of feed in the correct proportions.
Run: transfer of livestock to a new diet
After fertilization, the cow goes through three stages: dry period, calving, lactation. On each of them, the animal's organism changes in a special way, and the diet should correspond to the changes.
If the farmer does not pay enough attention to livestock during the dry period, this has a negative effect on the intrauterine development of the calf. Therefore, excessively reduce the time of dead wood can not. It is best to ensure it in the last 2 months of pregnancy, when the fetus needs a maximum of nutrients.
Starts a dry start-up period - the termination of milking and a gradual change in diet for 7-12 days.
Two weeks before the dead wood, the amount of silage in the cattle menu is reduced to 20%. Then within a week they gradually reduce the amount of succulent feed. Sometimes they are cleaned completely, but not dramatically, otherwise lactation will continue. It is impossible to give a beer pellet, bagasse, bard during this period, as these products contribute to the formation of milk.
6-7 days before launch, the yield should be significantly reduced. Otherwise, concentrate is removed from the diet.
In addition, they stop milking the cow at lunchtime, then begin to give up the milk not fully, and stop the udder massage.
There are also preparations for the introduction of dead wood: orbesil, orbenin, gamaret, mastisan A and B.
Feeding while dead
In this phase, feeding the cows also has features. When dry, the animal faces obesity or exhaustion, but at the same time, the diet must be complete, so that the calf in the womb developed properly.
Feeding rates are not the same for cows with different productivity. If before launching the menu, they are significantly trimmed, then within two weeks all types of feed are returned to the diet. Then they begin to increase its nutritional value by 10-20%, increasing the amount of sugar. 30 days before the expected delivery, the feeding of cattle is again reduced, and immediately before the calving only hay is given.
It is worth remembering that even if the animals are fed perfectly, during the deadwood they may lack vitamins E, A, D, selenium and other trace elements. About 45 days before giving birth, multivitamins are injected into the cows to fix the problem. The procedure is repeated three times with a 10-day interval.
In general, the dry period is divided into two stages. During the first (from 60 to 21 days before calving), the cow's food includes haylage from cereals, hay and vitamin-mineral supplements. In the second period (21 days before giving birth), feeding a cow consists of haylage, silage, plus 3-4 kilograms of concentrates per day.
The diet of the cow before calving
The last ten days before calving, feeding the cows is the same as in the first days after giving birth. Of course, the mass of voluminous feed will be less, but the proportions are the same as always, including 1 kg of concentrated feed. Subsequently, it will have a good effect on lactation.
Calcium is added to the food of the animal a few days before calving - this will help to separate the afterbirth. After birth, this element is retained in the diet. Also, the cow increases the need for magnesium. Concentrates are gradually increased to the usual amount.
In general, the menu of the animal before calving is approximately as follows: 10-12 kg of silage, 6-10 kg of hay, vegetables and root crops - 8-10 kg, 1.5-2 kg of concentrates, 30-50 g of salt and chalk. In recent days, exclude succulent feed and concentrates. A cow may lose its appetite immediately before giving birth, but it must eat, therefore it is important that the feed is tasty and appetizing, and the feeding schedule is competent.
Proper nutrition will ensure good lactation.
Feeding lactating cows depends on their productivity and health. In addition, the lactation period is divided into three phases: freshness and distribution, the highest productivity, decline.
It is crucially important to organize the nutrition of the animal in the first phase, which lasts 80-100 days. The difficulty is that cows at this time do not consume as much food as is needed for good lactation, and do not receive enough nutrients. The situation changes only to 12-14 weeks after calving.
Feeding of dairy cows is organized on the basis of their weight and milk yield. The calculation is 0.5 feed units per 100 kg of weight, plus 0.5 feed units for each kg of milk received. At the same time, in the first 4 weeks, an additional 3-4 feed units (KE) are given, and then the “additive” is reduced to 1 KE.
It is worth remembering that coarse and juicy food is not so nutritious. If an animal gives more than 5 thousand kg of milk per year, their volume is reduced to 15-18% by adding tuber milk and molasses during feeding.
Menu in the cold season
Often on farms, animals are fed with silage and concentrates in winter. This is fraught with metabolic disorders. Therefore, in the stall period, it is important to comply with the diet.
For cows weighing 400-500 kg, milk yield 16-18 liters per day, the menu is: 6 kg of hay, 2 - grass cutting, 15 - silage or hay, 10 - root crops, 5 - compound feed. Also give salt (89 g), potassium iodide (6 mg), zinc sulphate (1 g), food disodium phosphate (40 g), cobalt chloride (14 g). Medium-sized cattle are fed twice a day. Feeding highly productive cows is carried out 3-4 times a day. If the energy value of the feed is not enough, animals are given special additives. It is very important to monitor the amount of protein in food - its lack leads to exhaustion and serious diseases, especially in dairy cattle.
Approximate ration for dairy cattle with different productivity (feed volumes are given in percent):
Transition and summer diet
Feeding and maintenance for dairy cows in each lactation period are different, and the transitional phases are no less stable. If you drastically transfer the animal from the winter diet to the summer, it will cause problems with digestion and a decline in productivity, so the cattle need to be taught to the new menu gradually over 1-2 weeks.
To bring milk cows in the summer to graze must be rationed, starting from 1-1.5 hours per day. If a cow immediately eats a lot of grass, it will entail a disruption of the scar and even serious complications.
Cereal and legumes are best for cows of any breed. Also in the warm season, cattle should receive additional salt, since there is not enough sodium in the green feed. At home, if not pasture, be sure to give chopped grass.
In the summer you should not refuse concentrates. If the diet of the animal a lot of bean greens, they can be minimized. In the presence of good pasture animals give 400 g of concentrate per 1 liter of milk, produced in excess of 15 kg of milk. If the pastures are scarce, the cattle are additionally fed with concentrates, starting with milk yield of 5-7 liters in the same volume.
Feeding by economic use of cows
The norms of feeding cattle depend on the purpose of livestock. Especially important is a full menu for dairy cows. It is necessary to take into account the energy value of the feed, and the dry matter content. For animals of normal productivity, its volume is 14–16 kg per day, 18–19 kg are highly productive, and record holders — 20–24 kg.
Feeding dairy cows after calving begin with hay of cereals and legumes, and after two days add concentrates. In winter, it is especially important to feed the animal with high-energy feed, not forgetting about premixes, vitamins. To make your cow better eat and give more milk, root vegetables, good hay, silage are introduced into the diet.
When feeding beef cattle, it is worth remembering that it absorbs well even coarse, not very nutritious food. It is necessary that the menu had 28-30% of fiber, from 6.6 to 7.4% of starch, from 4.8% of sugar and crude fat, about 2.5%. The amount is calculated based on the volume of dry matter.
It is also extremely important to know how to properly formulate a diet for highly productive livestock. For such animals, it is advisable to make an individual menu. They need not only more energy and feed units, but also increased norms of amino acids, microelements - for stable milk yields. For example, if an animal gives 40 kg of milk per day, its need for tryptophan, lysine, methionine increases 1.5 times.
Features diet heifers
Now we will tell how to feed the animals which became pregnant for the first time. They need a special approach, so the rules of their diet.
Heifers have physiological characteristics that require attention. So, they have a relatively small scar, but for a cow to boast excellent yield, it is important not only the quality, but also the amount of feed consumed. Therefore, first, animals are given more food with a low nutritional value: haylage from late grass, hay. It is very strictly necessary to control the weight of the cattle, so that in no case will it gain too much - this will complicate childbirth.
Three weeks before calving, feeding of heifers changes: concentrates are added to the diet. By the time of delivery, the menu should be the same as after them. Increasing nutritional value is important for the reason that it is not easy to feed a cow before calving - the animal loses its appetite. But with the start of lactation, the body will need a lot of energy. Thus, the lack of volumes of feed will be replenished with its nutritional value.
Proper feeding of heifers - a guarantee of health for mother and calf
The first birth is a serious stress for the animal, so after calving you need to take care of it. Immediately give the cattle enough water (up to 40 liters), special supplements that are rich in vitamins and trace elements (for example, Rindavital Energitrank, they give once immediately after birth: 0.5 kg of this supplement is mixed with warm water and cow).
With improper feeding of heifers, the farmer will receive sick, unproductive animals that will have no value for the herd. Therefore, the question of the diet of such cattle should be taken seriously.
But to meet the needs of the cow during the stripping and lactation is not easy. So, for the first time, dry matter of a first-born cow consumes less than an adult by 20–25%. And the need for metabolizable energy and protein is quite high - 11.7 MJ and 17.2%, respectively (with the desired productivity of 7-8 thousand kg of milk for the entire lactation period). To cover the needs of the body of cattle, we need the highest quality hay, haylage (grain) and silage.
Feed mix for first-calves is distributed three times a day. Concentrates make up 45% of the total amount of feed, but not more than 2 kg per feeding. Their volume should be increased gradually, by half a kilogram per day.
In the feed add cake, rapeseed meal. The moisture content of the feed mixture should not exceed 60% - so the animals will maintain a good appetite. To add energy to the dry matter, vegetable oils (up to 3%), dried pulp (up to 15%), corn (up to 30%) and propylene glycol (2%) are introduced into the feed. Propylene glycol protects the liver and normalizes the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.
We hope our article was helpful to you. Do not forget to put likes.
Share your opinions in the comments.