The Texas Fever, also known as chikhir or cattle piroplasmosis, can greatly reduce herd numbers. This dangerous disease occurs very quickly and is often fatal. Piroplasmosis is caused by ticks, which, through a bite, enter the body of the cattle with piroplasm (babesia). Here they begin to multiply and infect the internal organs, and then - the blood. Sick cows receive immunity, which protects them from reinfection for 6-8 months.
The main signs of the disease
Piroplasmosis in cows is always very acute. After infection through tick bites, the latent period is 8-12 days. From the first days of the disease, the body temperature rises to 42 degrees, animals feel depressed. They refuse food, stop chewing, constantly drink water. Cows hardly carry the paddock on pasture. It becomes difficult for them to walk, so they are lagging behind the herd, they constantly lie down, and the amount of milk goes down.
Symptoms include increased heart rate to 120 beats per minute, heavy breathing. On the mucous membranes appear blood vessels, and after 2 days a large number of spotted hemorrhages. Infected cows constantly stand with their heads tilted to the floor, they have an increased tearing. Symptoms are also characterized by impaired gastrointestinal activity. Animals suffer from diarrhea, constipation.
On the second day after the increase in body temperature, hemoglobinuria begins, under the influence of which the urine becomes dark cherry and contains a large amount of protein. Urination is increasing.
If cows die from piroplasmosis, their corpses are very emaciated. Mucous membranes, tendons, fat, become yellowish. Hemorrhages are noticeable on the intestinal mucosa and in the lymph nodes. The blood clots slowly, has a very liquid consistency. The spleen of an animal increases in size, becomes flabby and cherry-colored in the cut.
The kidneys and liver are also enlarged, and the gallbladder is filled with lots of bile. Due to hemoglobinuria, urine residues in the bladder are bright red. The blood vessels in the intestine are filled with blood, the lungs swell and become covered with hemorrhages. The size of the heart increases, the heart muscle becomes flabby. Blood accumulates in its cavities. The brain swells and the whole is covered with hemorrhages.
Sites of disease
Outbreaks of cattle piroplasmosis (cattle) most often occur in the southern territories where ticks live. The disease is common in Central Asia, Kursk, Voronezh regions, in the Caucasus and the Crimean peninsula. Piroplasmosis is tolerated by single-owner, two-farm and three-farm pincers.
Most often, outbreaks of the disease occur in the summer, but in warm regions they may appear in spring and autumn. Cattle usually become infected while walking on pasture, where you can easily pick up a tick. But the disease can manifest itself even with a stall, if together with fresh grass to bring ticks.
Local cattle tolerate the disease much more easily than cattle, which were brought from other areas. If animals are old, they feed poorly and often get sick, then piroplasmosis is more severe. Pregnant chicks can have an abortion. In the territories of Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Crimea, and Ukraine, the single-farm tick Boophilus calculator is distributed. When it is bitten, a cow can catch piroplasmosis together with babesiosis and francaiellosis.
How to diagnose a disease in cattle
Diagnosis of piroplasmosis is carried out taking into account clinical and pathological data. It is important to perform a microscopic blood test. If the animal is infected, parasites will be detected in the smear erythrocytes. The corpse is affected up to 40% of red blood cells. When an animal dies, a swab needs to be taken a maximum in a day, so that the diagnosis is extremely accurate.
Piroplasmosis can be easily confused with other diseases:
The main factor in the diagnosis of piroplasmosis is the presence of parasites in the erythrocytes. On this basis, during clinical analysis, it can be distinguished from franciaellosis and babesiosis. In addition, during babesiosis, hemorrhages are less pronounced, and francaiellosis is characterized by weak yellowness.
Drugs for the treatment of disease
Treatment should begin with isolating the sick animal from the herd. He needs to provide complete rest, no stress, and regular meals. Must stand tank with water. In the diet you need to add sour milk, vitamin B12 and special supplements that contain a large number of trace elements.
Intravenous injections of "Flavacridine" and "Trypaflavin" work well. 1% of the drug must be taken in the calculation of 0.004 g per 1 kg of cattle. If the animal becomes worse, the medication is administered twice with a break of 4 hours. Hemosporidin and Piroplasmin are also effective. The first drug (2% solution) must be administered subcutaneously 2 times with a break per day at the rate of 0.5 mg per kg of body weight. A 5% solution of "Piroplasmin" is also administered subcutaneously twice at the same interval.
Veterinarians often use "Azidine" subcutaneously or intramuscularly. 7% of the drug should be administered at a dose of 3.5 mg per kg of body weight. If calves or cows are ill during lactation, "Berenil" is used, which does not adversely affect the mammary glands and is eliminated from the body within 24 hours. 7% of the drug should be administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly at a rate of 0.5 ml per 10 kg.
If the cows that do not get piroplasmosis are not treated, they will die 8-10 days after the onset of the disease.
Important prevention rules
Farmers and owners of private farms need to graze cattle only in safe places where there are no ticks. It is best to use cultural areas for these purposes.
It is necessary to overtake the cows into farms that are safe according to piroplasmosis only in winter, in order not to carry mites onto new pastures. If animals need to be transferred in the summer, they should be treated with an acaricidal drug. For example, "Sevin", "Chlorofos". 3% solution should be sprayed onto the skin of the animal and rub in thoroughly. Processing should be carried out 3 times with a break of 5 days.
In disadvantaged areas and at the beginning of the outbreak of the disease the whole herd needs to introduce a 7% solution of "Berenil" This medicine will protect animals from piroplasmosis for 2-3 weeks. The territory of agricultural enterprises must be treated with special chemicals to prevent the spread of dangerous insects. To reduce the number of ticks, cattle need to graze in one place for a maximum of 3 weeks. Therefore, farmers are recommended to have 4 shift territories. It should be borne in mind that ticks attack horses, goats, dogs, which can also carry pests on themselves.
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