When cattle are fed without any system, the result will be unpredictable. In order to produce high quality meat and the desired amount, owners of individual pets and farmers of large livestock farms should pay due attention to a balanced diet. Whoever is waiting for the result, but is not going to make any special efforts, is very mistaken, because it is a whole science to feed the cow correctly. And each food product performs its own special functions.
We define groups by similar characteristics.
For the subsequent slaughter of animals for meat is prepared not only specially bred breeds (Hereford, Simmental, Charolais and others). It happens that dairy cows suffer such a sad fate. After all, no animal is immune from disease, as a result of which the cow becomes breeze. There are also congenital defects of the reproductive or other organs.
As for the bulls, there are usually few producers in the herd. All other male animals are slaughtered before ripening or castrated, whether they are representatives of the dairy or meat type.
If there are many animals in the farm, the first thing to do is to break them up into groups with similar data on weight, breed, sex and age. Fattening technology for each of them will be different. And, of course, there will be different norms of consumption, because a calf cannot eat as many kilos as its mother or another adult cow.
Feeding on pasture and fattening in the stall
Technique fattening cattle directly depends on the time of year. In winter, when there is snow in the meadows, the cow is not driven out to pasture, which means it remains to be content with stall and loose housing in the pen. In the latter case, for all animals, the food is in the common feeding trough and is consumed according to the "who wants it" rule.
If a cow is kept in a stall on a leash, then, with the aim of fattening, you should give her food at regular intervals at least twice a day, and preferably three.
Feeding weights during fattening on pasture is considered to be cheaper technology, but it is applicable only in the warm season and not in all areas of our vast Russia. Basically, this method of fattening cows is common where there is a steppe expanse. These are the Voronezh and Rostov regions, the Stavropol and Krasnodar regions.
The described species are both good, the choice of the method of fattening a cow depends on the existing conditions and possibilities. But in any of these technologies, the basis of the diet is always feed, because it is there that contains a large amount of protein, giving a mass gain to the animal.
Sun and wind: strictly by the rules
In the southern regions of the country, feeding as a way of fattening cows is used from spring to late autumn - April-October; in the northern regions, the suitable period is much shorter - June-August. But wherever the meadows remain green for more than three months, this method is quite applicable. The grass should grow to at least 10 cm, and the damp spring soil should dry out.
The most important is the fattening mode. Shepherds should be informed about the purpose for which these cattle graze, and not feed the cows to no purpose, forcing them to expend energy. Here are some mandatory rules:
- large rest breaks twice a day (day and night);
- short rest after each watering;
- in hot weather, rest is arranged on a hill;
- in the heat of the cattle driven against the wind, and in the cold - downwind;
- in bright sun, graze so that the rays fall on the cow from behind or from the side;
- in order to avoid the development of tympania, the sutra is not herded on legumes;
- in order to avoid damage to the hooves, animals are taken to the meadows after the dew subsides.
More salt and water
The grazing time of cows is at least 12-13 hours a day. According to research conducted by scientists of the Astrakhan region, the best results can be achieved if we increase this time by at least two hours. Then the weight gain increases by 40 and even by 70% (in young animals). The highest result, which was achieved - is 2 kg per day per animal at the very beginning of the season (May-June).
Since the plants in their composition do not have enough minerals, their replenishment in the diet is necessary, otherwise the animals will start to “eat” the feeders and chew the manure. On a day, 40 g of mineral feed with calcium content (15 g), phosphorus (12 g) and salt (13 g) should be given to feeding cows. The amount of the last component, as the summer comes into its own, is increased to 2 kg, laying out in different places of the paddock.
Particular attention - watering. Despite the fact that a cow grazing with grass receives 35-40 liters of water, it must be fed an additional at least three times a day.
In animals fed to fresh beef, the process is divided into two stages - the age of cattle from 1 to 6 months and the age after six months. The first category of babies of both sexes is contained with the same diet, and their mass is not very different, no matter how pitay. But after six months, bulls and calves are separated from each other. In more detail about what and how to use for the growth of young animals, we tell in the article "Feeding calves for meat."
And now let us dwell on the technology of fattening animals, rejected for various reasons. If we are talking about adults who have already formed everything, then the protein in the diet will be enough and 80 g per one feeding unit. But in order to achieve the desired growth, for cattle it is better to adhere to the standards that we present in the table. The values given are recommended for cows in stall housing during the winter season:
The table above contains the averaged data, and in drawing up the ration for fattening of cattle one should bear this in mind. To improve the fatness, you can add daily intake of concentrates - 500 g. Molasses gives a good effect. It can be given to a cow at 700-800 g per day.
In summer, the basis of the diet is fresh grass. Pasture maintenance of a cow for fattening costs the farmer much cheaper. At this time, all the vitamins and the main share of nutrients it takes from meadow plants. In this case, it is possible to reduce the roots and vegetables, which are consumed in large quantities in the winter.
But it happens that in the summer the cow is fed in stalls, then the grass she mowed is simply put in the feeder. Usually greens make up at least 50-70% of the total daily intake.
A few words about the time spent
The feeding of cattle intended for slaughter is organized in such a way that reserve substances are deposited in the cow's body. In adult animals, it will basically be fat. For its formation, carbohydrates are needed, which are contained in barley, oats, corn and silage.
For example, an ox weighing 6 quintals can be fattened for 90 days if its daily ration will contain 12 feed units per day. During this time, he will add another 100 kg. And if its daily rate is reduced to 8.5 feed units, the gain will fall by half. Then, to get the same result, it will take half a year.
Dairy cows going for meat, first finish their dairy function. They gradually reduce the amount of succulent feed, after which they begin to introduce more protein into the diet. For comparison, you can read the article "The diet of feeding dairy cattle."
Order in everything
Products included in the diet should be given to the cow in the following order:
- strong feed (feed, grain cereal plants - wheat, barley, oats)
- succulent feed (grass, silage, vegetables);
- roughage (contain a lot of fiber - hay, straw).
If animals come from other farms, then the cows are kept in quarantine for at least two weeks. A veterinary document is filed for each individual. Weighing animals carried out every 10 days to constantly monitor the result.
Over the entire period of fattening, the diet is changed three times, on average, every thirty days. That is how much time it takes to get an animal of good fatness.
While feeding cattle, schemes can be used with a focus on a single product, for example, corn silage. In this case, the daily rate of it in the diet of a cow can be 40-45 kg. Then hay and straw give 4 kg per day, and they are optional in the composition. Their purpose is to improve the functioning of the digestive organs.
Concentrates are added to the diet only in the second and third phase of fattening, approximately 1.5-2 kg per day. They fill the content of essential vitamins.
If you use pulp
Experts believe that the nutritional composition of corn silage is slightly inferior in terms of corn-straw silage, where there is much more protein and minerals. However, many farmers still feed them animals. And if there is a lack of protein, then it is filled with synthetic urea (carbamide). In the day it will need 60-80 g per head.
It happens that when preparing cows for slaughter, they are fed with pulp for meat. This product belongs to the food industry waste. It is obtained after processing sugar beet. And although there are almost no vitamins and protein in the pulp residues, the pulp has a high nutritional value due to carbohydrates. To increase the shelf life, it is leavened, ensiled or dried.
If the daily ration of a fattening cow includes sour pulp in the amount of 55-60 kg, then in three months the maximum fattened animal will reach the highest fatness. Of course, the menu should contain straw (2 kg), as well as molasses (1.5 kg), concentrates (1 kg) and crushed corn (3 kg). With this menu, weight gain can reach a kilogram per day.
Distillery waste - in the case
Barda is another type of food waste, which is used to fatten cows. The product is issued by alcohol plants that process potatoes and cereals. The nutritional value of bards depends on the specific composition and ranges from 4 to 8 feed units.
This product has a liquid consistency and is stored in barrels. In winter, it can be frozen, but before use it must be heated. Bard is not stored for long and freezing is one of the ways to increase shelf life. But more often it canned by silage.
The amount of bards drunk per cow per day can reach 100 kg. But on average, 70 kg is enough for daily consumption as the main product, and in addition - 5 kg of roughage and 2 kg of concentrates. As a result of such fattening in 90 days you can get a good weight gain of cattle.
Diet during fattening on the bard
If you choose the method of fattening on the bard, then you need to take into account some of the rules on the diet.
The fourth part of the whole norm of bards (20 kg) provided on the day is given to the cow in the morning. To do this, the product is mixed with cut straw - 1 kg (one third of the daily ration). At lunch, feed the animal exactly the same. Possible residues each time for better eating replenish with salt (100-120 g per day) and concentrates (0.5 kg). The next dish that is served to the cow is silage (2-3 kg). After that, all the feeders are carefully cleaned. And in the evening - the rest of the bards.
With the described method of fattening, it is necessary to include bone meal and tricalcium phosphate in the diet of the cow. Supplements are calculated by weight of animals and depend on the concentration of the drug. Method of giving - breeding in the bard, like salt. Even there it is necessary to add at least 50 g of chalk, to increase the level of calcium.
Artificial weight gain
For increased cattle growth during fattening, the modern medical industry offers various stimulating drugs. They can be divided into two groups depending on the methods of influence on the cow.
Some of them just help to include all the reserves of the body. Others are anabolics for cow muscle growth. They are used in the form of injections or capsules, which are fixed behind the ear of the animal. These hormones help negligent farmers to increase profits, but they don’t carry any benefits to human nutrition, rather, on the contrary. However, these hormones during the processing of meat at high temperatures, for example, during cooking, are completely destroyed.
Also, to increase the weight of the animals used antibiotics, for example, "Biovit-80", which has the same effect as pure anabolics. "Nucleopeptide" is not inferior to them. With the help of the mentioned preparations it is possible to increase the cow's weight by 20-25%.
We hope that our article has helped to choose the method of fattening for the cow, and now you will be able to make the right diet on your own. Share this information with friends in social networks.
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