What is the cow's personal pregnancy calendar, and why is it needed at all? Knowing the date of mating, you can calculate the time of appearance of the calf. But not everything is so simple. The buren needs to be prepared for the calving, otherwise problems during childbirth or in the postpartum period cannot be avoided. In addition, without training, you should not count on large yields. That's just about the proper preparation for calving, we will continue to talk.
How does the fetus develop
The cow's personal pregnancy calendar is based on the stages of fetal development. Therefore, before talking about the diet and the intricacies of running cows, you need to have an idea of how calves develop inside the mother's womb. The stages of fetal development are usually broken down by months.
In the first month as such, the calf yet. The embryo is just beginning to form the eyes and, in part, the mouth is visible. It is still clearly visible gills, instead of the skin vascular mesh. The embryo weighs up to 1 gram.
The second month is devoted to the laying of organs of vital activity. In the same period, the placenta is formed. The embryo is actively growing and with a size of up to 8 cm should dial 20-30 g.
From 3 to 5 months, the testes are already formed and the cotyledons are clearly visible. By the 4th month horns are formed. By the 5th month, the size of cotiledons reaches 4 cm. During this period, the fetus can already be called a calf. It grows up to 45 cm and gains weight up to 4 kg.
At 6 months, there are signs of hair on the legs, and for 7 and 8 months, the calf is completely covered with short and smooth hair. Also, from the 7th month to the birth, the internal organs and incisors are actively formed.
On average, a pregnancy or a cow’s pregnancy lasts 285 days.
The diet of pregnant cows
Starting from insemination, and the entire period of cow's pregnancy, the diet is selected with an eye on the stages of the formation of the fetus. The first 6 months the animal needs to be given everything. So the daily ration of the cows weighing up to 500 kg is not less than 10-14 kg of hay from herbs. The amount of succulent fodder reaches 20 kg.
In the winter period are given in assortment: silage, fodder potatoes, beets, carrots. In summer, green grass on pastures makes up the lion's share of succulent fodder. Concentrates are given separately, but not more than 2 kg. Plus, there should always be table salt near the feeders, and chalk should be added to the feed.
Cattle can not be milked continuously, in the last 3 months before the birth the body of a pregnant cow needs to be given rest. And about 70 days before calving, the animal is transferred to dead wood and is stopped to milk at all. This is called launch. By the date of birth, the weight of the cow should be about 50 kg more than usual.
How to start
The launch should begin no later than 45 days before calving. The norm is 2 months, and for primiparous and highly productive cows, the launch starts in 70 days. But for him the animal must still be prepared.
Gradually, within 5-7 days, succulent feeds and concentrates are excluded from the diet. At this time, the cow is not even taken to pasture. At the same time, the amount of fluid consumed is reduced. Udder massage should be stopped, and the number of milkings should be reduced to 2.
By the time of launch, the udder sags and wrinkles appear on it. To stop the cow milking, it is completely transferred to hay.
In highly productive dairy breeds, it is possible to stop milking and start a cow at a productivity of 4 liters per day. And for meat types of livestock, the milk rate at startup is 1 l. As soon as the cow was started, that is, it was transferred to dead wood and stopped milking, the daily ration and the assortment of regular feed were returned in 3-4 days so that the animal gained weight.
How to determine the date of calving by the formula
The main thing that should be repelled is the exact date of insemination of the cow. Based on it, we can already know the date of calving a cow. At the moment there are 2 ways - this is a calculation using the formula and calendar of pregnancy and calving in cows, tabulated.
The formula is simple, it looks like this:
D = (H + 11). (H-3)
D - date and month of delivery;
H - the date of insemination;
H - the sequence of the month of insemination on the calendar;
The coefficients "11" and "3" are unchanged.
For example, insemination was June 20. We consider - June is our 6th month according to the calendar. Substitute the value and get - (20 + 11). (6-3) = 31.03 or 31 March.
There is an important point here - if conception happened in the first 2 months of the year, then 12 must be added to the calendar number of the month.
Calendar of calving cows in the table:
In this table, calving cows have clear dates of calving (right column), but literally it is not necessary to rely on them, because the delay or acceleration of labor can go up to 2 weeks.
Preparation for childbirth and the launch must be constantly checked with the calendar of calving, in fact, for this table there are.
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