To feed a cow after calving does not become a problem, it is necessary to plan a diet before birth. Then there will be no threat of paresis due to calcium deficiency or ketosis due to lack of glucose. Compiled by all the rules of the menu will help maintain a good appetite and activity of the animal. Our article will help to deal with the nutritional value of each product consumed by the settled cattle. We will tell you how and what to do to organize a healthy diet for the cows before and after the birth of the calf.
Before telling you how to feed a cow after calving, let's talk about the preceding period. Indicators of milk yield during cow's pregnancy are important. After all, based on these values, preliminary calculations of feed consumption rates are made. That is, the weight of the cattle and the previous indicators of milk produced during lactation are taken as a basis.
For example, if a cow weighs 500 kg and gives 4 liters of milk per day with a fat content of 4%, then after calving, she will need to use a variety of feed every day with a general nutritional index of 8-9 feed units. The amount of digestible protein should be about 1000 g, carotene - 380-400 g, calcium - 90-100 g, phosphorus - 60-70 g.
These standards correspond to the menu, which is presented below in the comparative table:
Please note that after the completion of the cow distribution process, the silage rate is doubled. However, like all other products. This is due to the desire of the owner to get more milk at the expense of juicy feed.
But such a diet is recommended to Burenka only in the cold season or in early spring. As soon as fresh grass appears in the meadows, the amount of silage is reduced, and the main part of the liquid enters the animal's body with green fodder.
In order not to face the problems of feeding the cows after calving, let's look at the feed that can and should be included in the diet. To maintain energy and vitamin balance in the body and for the normal functioning of the digestive system, the following set is necessary:
- roughage (20-30 centners per year) - hay, straw, haylage;
- succulent feed (35-45 centners per year) - silage;
- green fodder (50-70 kg per day during the pasture period) - fresh grass;
- concentrates (4-5 centners per year);
- food industry waste (10-15 kg per day mixed with roughage) - beet pulp, bard;
- vitamins (carrots - 2-4 kg per day; fodder beets - 3-5 kg per day; zucchini - 2-4 kg per day) - roots and vegetables.
If for some reason, the cow does not eat or drinks little, then this behavior cannot be ignored. A healthy animal just will not refuse to feed. After calving, the body of the cow is weakened and susceptible to disease, and in order not to delay treatment of a possible disease, it is best to invite a veterinarian.
When you need more fluid
A serious mistake is made by those farmers who begin to feed the cow in front of the hotel as if she had already given birth. After all, the main rule in the last months before childbirth is the reduction of succulent feed to limit the amount of milk produced, and the goal is to completely stop milking.
This mode allows the cow to relax and accumulate a supply of nutrients in the body, then to use for itself and in the form of colostrum to give the calf. If you continue to feed the cow with succulent feeds and milk it to the very birth, the quality of the colostrum will be no different from ordinary milk. And there will be no sense from him.
But already after calving, at home, including - the goal is absolutely the opposite. The amount of succulent feed and liquid consumption during the feed is gradually increased. Within 2-3 months, daily consumption is adjusted to the following standards:
- carrots - 15 kg;
- fodder beet - 20 kg;
- sugar beet - 10 kg, potatoes - 10 kg;
- pumpkin (watermelon) - 15 kg.
Smooth increase to full volume
When the calving is over, the weary cow needs rest and replenishment of vital energy due to the intake of nutrients from the feed. However, you can not give her too much of this very power.
So, on the first day they give her a little hay - no more than 3 kg. And so she saw with pleasure, the water is slightly heated to a temperature of 28-30 degrees. Let us analyze by day, how and what to feed the retired cow.
On the second day, in addition to water and hay, cake is added to the diet. It can be replaced by bran, diluted in water. Neat volume - up to 1 kg. On the third day, you can gradually begin to introduce succulent feed - beets, silage. The rate is distributed so that on the sixth day the amount of beets is 5 kg, and on the seventh day the amount of silage reaches 6 kg.
Further, fresh grass is included in the diet. But the first time it is given quite a bit - 6-7 kg. A gradual increase in the rate after 10 days leads to a figure of 40 kg per day. Accordingly, the weight of other products present in the menu increases.
The period of gradual transfer to a full diet takes about 10-12 days.
The restriction of succulent feeds in the first week after birth is associated with the prevention of breast diseases. But, if, after calving, a cow's udder inflamed, the process of increasing the succulent feed in the diet is made even more smooth, stretching to 20-25 days.
We regulate the amount of feed in practice
In the process of monitoring the cow after calving, you need to monitor at what level the milk yield, and how the weight of the animal changes (or does not change). After giving birth, a Burenka should not lose weight, and the amount of milk should increase. If the process is different, then the nutrition is balanced incorrectly.
For example, if you give a cow 4-5 kg of feed every day and get 12-13 liters of milk every day, you should try to increase the volume of feed, while watching the changes in milk yield. If milk is added, then you can safely continue to increase feed. But if during two or three days nothing happens, then the rate is reduced to the figure that was originally (actual productivity).
To obtain high yields, we advise not only meadow hay to be given to cattle representatives, but also to add to the ration of bean crops at least 3-4 kg per day. They are rich in protein and vitamins.
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In the comments, tell us about your observations if you had to make a diet for a cow before or after calving.