The procedure of artificial insemination of cattle is carried out with the help of machines for insemination of cows and other tools and materials. The first experiments of this kind date back to the 18th century. And in the XX century, this method of breeding the herd became one of the most important agricultural achievements. Artificial insemination of cattle gives accurate timing of calving, eliminates disease and allows you to control the quality of offspring. The equipment used for the procedure must be prepared.
A favorable period for artificial insemination
The cow has the ability to conceive, bear and calve at any time of the year. Her cycle is about three weeks. The first stage of the cycle takes place under the action of estrogens, the production of which is associated with the maturation of follicles in the ovaries. Their high content in the blood increases the production of sexual secretions, some of which are excreted from the uterus outward in the form of abundant mucus. Restless behavior of the cows at this time indicates a period of estrus. For almost a day the animal is in a state of excitement.
The next stage lasts about 30 hours and is most favorable for the insemination of cattle. At this time, ovulation occurs when the egg is ready for fertilization. If, as a result of mating or artificial insemination, the production of estrogen does not occur, the animal calms down. There comes the third stage - balancing.
How to make a special room
Premises for artificial insemination are organized separately from the places of general keeping of cattle.
The zoo technician performing the procedure must have a special certificate of appropriate training and experience in artificial insemination of cattle.
To prepare for the insemination process, you need a laboratory with a microscope to check the quality of sperm, chemical reagents, tools and necessary utensils. Immediately fertilization takes place in the arena, where there is an opportunity to fix the animal, without causing him harm and discomfort. Arena must have good lighting. As a rule, it is painted in light colors.
Processing and disinfection of equipment, syringes and catheters is performed in the washing room. For overexposure of cows and heifers before and after the procedure, additional room is necessary.
Required devices and materials
For the procedure using special equipment and preparations:
- long rubber or polyethylene gloves (80 cm);
- ampoules or syringe for sperm;
- a catheter for the administration of drugs;
- Dewar vessels for storage and transportation of biological material;
- vaginal speculum;
- device for additional lighting.
All instruments are thoroughly disinfected using disinfectants. Syringes and reusable catheters are disassembled, washed with soap and water, and thermally sterilized or under an ultraviolet lamp.
The sperm in the syringe is tested for sperm vitality on a special sterile stand. If a single dose is used for several cows, then after insemination of each animal, the catheter is treated with alcohol.
Methods for the introduction of biomaterial
Modern cervical technique (through the cervix) artificial insemination is of three types. The simplest, but least reliable, is the manocervical method. In this case, the sperm is typed in a vial that attaches to the catheter directly in the package.
The visocervical method involves visual control with a vaginal speculum. The disadvantage of this type of insemination is the possibility of injury with additional tools.
The fastest - rectocervical - method gives the highest percentage of conception. This procedure requires disposable syringes and catheters with a length of about 35-42 cm. The accuracy of the introduction of the biomaterial is controlled through the rectum. The effectiveness of the method reaches from 75 to 95%. All three insemination options require that the animal is not under stress.
Veterinary technical inventions
Veterinary inventions used during artificial insemination include special machines for fixing cows. The size of the stall is made of metal bars frame of a certain configuration, which allows you to securely fasten the head, shoulders and legs of the animal when lowering the blocker. The exit is blocked by a door in which an opening is provided for the operator’s hand.
Such a device makes the procedure of insemination of cattle painless for an animal. Providing the immobility of the cow, the machine reduces the risk of injury to the animal and increases the safety of the zootechnician conducting the procedure.
The item of artificial insemination of cows, equipped with machine tools, increases throughput by 2-3 times due to the mechanization of the process. Unlike tying, fixation in the machine does not cause cattle anxiety.
The benefits of fertilization without bull
To maintain the dairy productivity of the cow, it is necessary to ensure the birth and birth of a calf annually. Artificial insemination is a good alternative to the bull sementer. One dose of high-quality biomaterial allows you to fertilize several cows in the state of sexual hunting at once. Both for large farms and small farms it is economically advantageous and provides a high probability of getting pregnant cows.
Well-organized food, systematic walks and proper veterinary care in combination with artificial insemination allow you to effectively plan an increase in the number of the herd, even in the absence of a bull-producer.
Unlike natural reproduction, this method of fertilization virtually eliminates infection of the inseminated cow with trichomonellosis, brucellosis and other infectious diseases. Naturally, if strict rules for disinfecting used instruments and equipment are observed.
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