Today, the natural insemination of cows in farms is not as popular as artificial. It's all about the risks that are associated with this process. First of all - the transmission of infectious diseases. However, there are many farmers who for one reason or another are not engaged in artificial insemination of animals. In addition, when managing a household, it is important to be aware of all the nuances. In this article we will talk about the methods of natural insemination of cows, as well as touch on artificial insemination.
How to ensure successful insemination
Regardless of the manner in which it is customary to seed animals on the farm, it is important to follow the rules that guarantee a good result. It is necessary:
- choose the right animal (the cow must be in the hunt, the heifer must be at least 1.5 years old);
- correctly prepare the cow for insemination;
- provide complete care after insemination.
Puberty in cows comes before one and a half years - at 6-7 months, but it is better not to conceive at such an early age. Although the animal is ready for fertilization, its body is not fully formed yet, problems may arise during pregnancy or childbirth.
The cow itself must also be ready for insemination, and now it is not only about heat. The physical condition of the animal is extremely important for the successful conception and gestation of a healthy calf. For example, it is more difficult to fertilize a cow with excess weight, and too thin is in a state of sexual hunt for a very short time, and estrus happens less frequently. Be sure to organize walking the animals, to monitor the sanitary condition of the premises where they live, and ensure that they receive enough light, as well as high-quality food.
The period of sexual hunting in cows
Although with natural fertilization everything happens by itself, the owner needs to know when the cow is ready to mate with the bull and control the process. When artificial insemination fix estrus in general is extremely important, otherwise you can miss the period favorable for fertilization.
Although cows can bring calves all year round, there are certain periods for mating - sex hunting. First, the animal begins estrus, and after a day, that coveted time comes when fertilization is most likely. Sexual hunting does not last long - 25-30 hours, in very rare cases - up to several days (but this is an exception). At this time, ovulation occurs in cows — an egg ready for fertilization leaves the ovary. The amount of estrogen increases. If conception does not occur during this period, the level of the hormone drops, and the sexual desire disappears.
In order not to miss the moment of sex hunting, you need to watch the animals 2-3 times a day. Especially while walking. Ready-to-mate individuals are restless, eat less than usual, become interested in bulls, may jump on other cows, lick or sniff the genitals.
Physiologically, hunting is manifested by swelling of the external genital organs, the appearance of clear, whitish or hazy secretions.
Preparing a cow for insemination
It is necessary to prepare an animal for conception regardless of whether it will occur artificially or naturally.
Before insemination, you need to do the cleaning in the place where the procedure will take place. Do not use harsh disinfectants. You can restrict the solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate). The area around the anus of the animal is cleared of manure and dried secretions. Then the back of the body is washed with warm water and soap and rinsed with furatsilina solution. At the end of these procedures, the cattle is ready for mating or artificial insemination.
Now, as for the bull. If natural methods of insemination of cows are used, it is important to choose a strong and healthy male. It must be checked for infections. Since sexual intercourse is a labor-intensive process for a bull, the optimal load on it is 30-40 cows per season. If the bull is used too often, it is quickly depleted.
Features of free mating
Free mating refers to the natural methods of insemination. As the name implies, everything here happens solely by the will of nature.
The bull is always in the herd and covers as many cows as he wants. Often it can cover several times the same. The main disadvantage of this method is that it is impossible to keep track of which bull covered the female and which one did not, that is, many cows can remain undiminished. In this case, the mating does not always lead to conception, but the manufacturer quickly "exhales" and needs to be changed. If there is not one bull in the herd, it will be extremely difficult to establish from whom of them the cow gave birth to a calf. This is completely unacceptable in breeding.
If free mating is practiced, it is important to remember that once a week the bull needs to be "unloaded". He must rest a full day. For the sake of complete rest of the herd, the males are also separated at night.
Advanced version - manual check
With this method of mating, the bull is kept separate from the herd, and mating occurs under human control.
Animals mate in a special pen or in an arena. Here you need to place the machine, on which the bull will lean with its front legs, - this way too much gravity will not lie on the cow. The livestock specialist and the bull-seer approach the female slowly, carefully, then the animals are left alone, giving them a sniff of each other. It is important not to make loud sounds, to provide a calm environment, since the “couple” is easy to frighten away during mating. Mating is carried out twice with a break of 12-15 hours. Per day a healthy adult bull can do no more than two cages, and if he is already aged, limit one to one. If the bull is overloaded, it will cause him health problems.
Manual mating allows insemination of heifers and cows to be controlled in a controlled manner: to correctly match couples, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases in the herd. In addition, the bull-maker will be able to serve much longer than with free mating.
Artificial methods of fertilization
Artificially inseminated animals in most farms. It is beneficial and safe with all the rules.
There are three well-known methods of artificial insemination of cattle: manocervical, visocervical, epicervical and rectocervical. We will tell about them in general. Read more in our article "Methods of artificial insemination of cows."
With the manocervical method, the animal is inseminated with a hand — a catheter is held in it and the catheter is inserted into it together with the hand.
With the visocervical method, a person observes the process, without contacting the internal organs of the cow. It is performed using a syringe and vaginal speculum.
Rectocervical method is considered one of the most effective. With this method, the inseminator (ideally, a person of such a profession must be in the household) with one hand introduces a catheter closer to the cervix, and the second penetrates the rectum, finds the neck and puts it on the catheter.
Epicervical method is used when working with chicks. Bull semen is inserted by a catheter near the cervix.
Embryo Transplantation Method
This method has been known for cattle since the 1930s. Usually a cow gives birth to only one calf per year, but there are such valuable animals from which the farmer wants to get more offspring. Here he will be helped by transplantation of cattle embryos.
The procedure necessarily attract a veterinarian. From individuals selected by donors, by fertilization, they receive the required number of embryos and transplant them to recipient animals. That is, those who will carry calves.
Before a transplant, a veterinarian should examine and divide embryos into categories: 1, 2, 3, 4. The fourth category is rejected.
Transplantation of cattle embryos should be carried out only by a professional, it is carried out 7 days after the start of the sexual hunt.
The main advantage of this method is the ability to get calves with valuable genes from the best animals. Also, embryos can be frozen and then sold. In addition, using this method you can quickly, in 2-3 years, create a whole breeding herd.
There are special embryonic centers where high-quality cattle embryos are produced.
Insemination index and care for the cow after fertilization
19-23 days after insemination, animals take blood for analysis, or examine their internal organs vaginally or rectally. Thus, it becomes clear whether they are pregnant or not.
Old cows are placed separately from the rest of the herd. They need to be carefully monitored, provide adequate nutrition, warmth and dryness in the room, walking, a sufficient amount of light and water. Also, make sure the cows were calm. Pregnancy lasts about 280 days.
Insemination index is important for any household. It shows the number of insemination that was needed for one fertilization. The insemination index is calculated as follows: the total number of insemination (throughout the herd) is divided by the number of pregnant cows.
For example, for the selected period there were 350 inseminations, and then there were 130 pregnant cows. We do the calculation using the formula, we get 350: 130 = 2.6. This is a bad indicator. Anything over 2.1 is bad. A good index is 1.6-1.8, satisfactory - 1.9-2.0.
If our article was useful for you, and you found all the necessary information, be sure to like, write comments and tell our colleagues about us.