Making a ration for feeding cows is not as easy as it seems at first glance. The rate of food consumption per head can be taken by the average value, but be sure to consider the weight of subtleties and make adjustments. To get the desired result at the exit, one has to approach the question taking into account the goal set. After all, the number of products for dairy cows is significantly different from the standards for dry cows. Also, the menu for animals of different breeds can not be absolutely the same. In the article we will analyze in detail what is necessary to feed dairy cattle.
The diet of dairy herds differs in many respects from what feed cows of meat breeds. After all, the goal here is to get a lot of milk. Therefore, the main components of the menu are juicy food:
- fresh grass;
- root vegetables (carrots, beets, Jerusalem artichoke);
- vegetables (pumpkin, zucchini fodder).
To these main milk-killers is added the necessary amount of water to drink. For example, in winter, a cash cow can drink up to 15 times (35-40 liters), and a dry cow can drink up to 5 times (12-15 liters).
However, in order to get the desired quality of milk, one cannot do without grain, its derivatives, special feed additives and additional vitamins.
But it is required to begin the preparation of the diet with a clear definition in the herd of a group of cows with approximately the same physical indicators - weight, age and condition. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the amount of required feed for each dairy cow is calculated depending on its daily milk yield.
Requires constant analysis
In a day in three doses, each dairy individual should eat up to 50 kg of juicy feed of various species. It can be a daily set of 5 kg of beets, 7 kg of carrots, 8 kg of zucchini and 30 kg of green mass of leguminous crops. Rough feed will require 10-12 kg per day.
The structure of the diet or proportions may vary depending on the time of year. In the summer, when cattle spend almost all day time on pastures (namely, the main consumption of succulent feed occurs), it is possible to reduce the number of vegetables and root crops.
To correctly calculate the necessary volumes, a constant analysis of the diet is required. Thus, the rates of feeding cows vary around the main figures that we have given in the table below. As an example, it can be a daily consumption of 7 kg of cows of vegetables with fluctuations in both directions by two or three units and a mandatory increase in the total amount of juicy feed at the expense of other products.
The features of feeding include the frequency of feeding the cow in the feeder. The first one for dairy cattle is forage, that is, ground grain mixed with bran. Then vegetables and root vegetables containing a large amount of moisture. And only then hay or straw. In this order, useful elements are better absorbed.
Studies have shown that up to 350 g of fodder is needed for highly productive cows for every liter of milk given. And hay from leguminous or cereal plants at a time - up to 3.5 kg. Calculations were made on 100 kg of animal weight with a daily yield of 30 l. Here you can vary. So, if you reduce the amount of hay, then the rate of succulent feed should be increased. Usually such changes are made during the lactation period of the cow.
It is very important that the cow always has fresh water in the drinking trough, and in winter it warms up to room temperature, water. After all, for the process of milk production in the udder you need a lot of liquid.
You can not save in the dry period
In the dry period, when the cow is no longer milked before giving birth, in no case can you save on food. The diet of cows should be designed to ensure the normal course of pregnancy and the birth of a healthy calf.
Ideally, the dry period should last two months, at the very least, the minimum may be 40 days. But in no case can you reduce feed consumption at this time. In the last stages of pregnancy is intensive development of the fetus. All that he needs, he will in any case take from the mother's body. But the cow in this case will be tight. HHaving any useful substances, in the past the high-living dairy cow will reduce the milk yield, and even her belonging to the most famous dairy breed will not help.
During the dry period, the feeding regime and the volume of food change several times. So, in the first two weeks, only 80% of the norm is given, which is indicated in the table below. And in the last two weeks of pregnancy - it will be already 120%. Nutritional value of the diet is increased by increasing the number of concentrates, they give 4 kg per 1 head per day.
Quantity depends on quality
After the calf is born, the cow begins to be fed "in advance", that is, giving her the opportunity to replenish the supply of nutrients and energy expended on childbirth. Normal rates in the first two months after calving increase by 20-30%.
During this period, various supplements are necessarily added to the daily ration of the milk cow. For example, "Monocalcium phosphate feed." It is a small granules mixed with gray powder. It is best to dissolve it in drinking water. The daily rate of an adult cow is 100 g. A period of 5-10 days will be quite enough to replenish the reserves of calcium and phosphorus in the body.
Particular attention should be paid to the quality and content of nutrients in the products with which you will feed the cow. So, if the feed contains 14% protein, then for every liter of milk given away by the cow, it will need 0.6 kg. If the percentage is reduced to 12, then you should take already 0.7 kg of feed for each liter of milk yield.
When calculating the amount of hay in the diet, consider the time when it mowed. If this happened at the time of seed ripening, then the quality drops significantly. And this does not mean that the cow will eat it more, catching up with the result.
In this case, in order to get good yields, you will again have to increase the amount of feed. Approximately it is 12 kg per liter of milk.
The right amount of food is determined by the yield
For the preparation of the diet of dairy cows, it is necessary to know not only their weight and age, but also the size of the daily milk yield. If the animal is young and continues to grow (up to two years), then add 10% to the daily average number. The same percentage is used to increase the amount of feed if the cattle are kept in poor conditions.
Calculations for the preparation of the diet of cattle are carried out using a special measure that determines the nutritional value of each type of food. It is called a fodder unit, and the value is 150 g (when measured by fat deposition in cattle). In calories, this figure is 1414.
We give examples of calculations using this measure. According to the established norms, 100 kg of a cow's weight fall to 1 feed unit. Nutritional value is 40 g of fat, 100 g of sugar, 250 g of fiber, 6-7 g of salt, 6-7 g of calcium, 5-6 g of phosphorus. Consequently, the daily menu of a dairy cow weighing 500 kg should contain 5 feed units. That is, 200 g of fat, 500 g of sugar, 1250 g of fiber, 30 g of salt, calcium and phosphorus.
Summarize the research
The averaged data in the preparation of an approximate ration of feeding for dairy cattle for clarity, we have tabulated. The calculation of the need for feed was carried out for a cow weighing 500 kg, which gives 12,000 liters of milk per year. These figures correspond to the standards for 1 head and differ depending on the time of year and the state of the animal:
From the presented figures it is clear that the consumption of green fodder in the cold season is significantly reduced, and hay comes to replace it. However, there is nothing terrible about this, since with proper drying it retains up to 30% of all its nutritional properties. Silage and vegetables to be stored for a long time make up for the lack.
The benefits of a balanced diet
The effect of feeding on the health and productivity of cows is obvious. Indisputable positive role rationing of feed in each case. Without the right amount of protein, fiber, vitamins, amino acids, minerals and trace elements it is impossible to achieve good milk yields and high quality milk.
Each of these elements regularly performs its function. Protein contained in legumes and grain plants, is necessary to maintain muscle mass. Vitamins that give beets and carrots, are needed to strengthen the immune system. And the fiber obtained from the roughage (hay, straw) creates a useful microflora in the digestive system of the cow.
Only with a balanced consumption of all these elements, the Burenka will have full reproductive health, will retain reproductive abilities, and the cost of its maintenance will fully pay off and will bring the desired profit.
By the given examples and a detailed description of the diet, you can clearly imagine how much feed is needed for a dairy cow. Share this information with friends.
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