On the physiology of breeding cows


Regular breeding of cows in the farm allows you to get new offspring, to increase the number of meat and dairy products. It is necessary to know the physiological features of breeding cattle in order to avoid mistakes when organizing sexual intercourse of animals. It is important to be able to determine the readiness of the cow for breeding, to choose the method of mating and to organize the reception of childbirth.

When an animal is ready to mate

Cows and bulls are ready to breed only after reaching a period of maturity. In bulls, it occurs approximately at 8 months, and in cows a little later - at 10-12 months. Despite the entry into puberty, the animal organism continues to grow rapidly. According to the physiology of reproduction, the cow is ready to continue the race when her weight reaches 300 kg, which is about 75% of the total mass of an adult animal. These parameters appear at about 1.5 year old. Specialists who know how a cow breeds, understand that it is impossible to inseminate an individual that has not yet reached these indicators. Otherwise there will be difficulties:

  • the animal's body will develop more slowly;
  • the pelvis is underdeveloped, so the birth process will be difficult and long;
  • the amount of milk will decrease;
  • weak offspring will appear that may not survive.

However, it must be borne in mind that not only early mating has a negative effect on animal health, but also later. Bulls can become impotent, while cows will decrease the ability to reproduce offspring.

On the sexual cycles of cows

It is necessary not only to know the time of ripening of animals, but also to take into account the sexual cycles of the cow, since this affects the success of mating. The representatives of cattle have four periods: estrus, sexual arousal, hunting, ovulation.

During estrus, the cow's body prepares for insemination and fertilization. The beginning of the period is characterized by the release of clear mucus. By the end of estrus, it becomes thick and cloudy.

During sexual arousal, the animal constantly moans and refuses food. If there is no bull nearby, females can imitate sexual intercourse with each other. Lack of mating has a negative effect on milk. It becomes poor quality, and its quantity decreases sharply.

The period of hunting in cattle lasts up to one and a half days. The cow has increased sexual response to the bull, its behavior becomes very excited. The vulva increases in size, and labia noticeably swell and redden. Sometimes body temperature may rise. The case should be carried out immediately, as soon as the first symptoms of this period appeared.

Approximately 10 hours after the hunt is completed, the egg leaves the follicle.

How is intercourse

Sexual intercourse is divided into stages that ensure the success of this process. First, the bull comes in an erection, and he embraces the cow from behind. Then the animal introduces the penis into the vagina and makes several frictions. The last stage is characterized by the release of ejaculate.

The erectile function of bulls involves several processes. They originate in the brain, and end with the spermatic cord. When the animal's body ejects sex hormones, a strong rush of blood begins, after which the penis is filled with cavernous bodies.

The mating process of ruminant hoofed animals lasts about 10 seconds. During mating, the bull makes no more than 2-3 frictions.

If you watch the corresponding video, you can see that the male makes a couple of translational movements, and then a strong push. After this ejaculation occurs. The organization of intercourse is carried out in a natural, brewing and free way. Regardless of the technique used, it is necessary to make a plan for mating cattle. According to the plan, the cattle is divided into several groups according to their physiological state: pregnant, non-seed cows (up to a month from previous genera), barren, inseminated.

Manual reproduction

Today, manual breeding on farms is practiced very rarely. When using this method, females are assigned to each male, which are selected individually. The number of cows per bull can reach up to 100 heads. The copulation is carried out under the supervision of a specialist, so you can distribute the load on the bull-semen and keep records of sexual acts. With this method, sexual cycle is violated, because the animals are kept separately. The advantage is the ability to prevent the spread of disease.

The copulation process is best planned for the morning and carried out in a calm atmosphere. If the cow is too small, and the bull on the contrary is very powerful, the females should be placed in the machines in the arena. Before and after mating it is necessary to treat the genitals with a solution of furatsilina. After mating, it is necessary to eliminate contact with other individuals and allow cows to rest.

Varkovy method

In the brewing method, cattle owners can use valuable bulls to identify females in hunting condition, insemination of females and stimulate sexual function.

Before mating, cows are led into a spacious room (cooking), after which they launch either a probe or a manufacturing bull. The male chooses for himself the female, which is in a state of hunting, after which he inseminates her. The number of cows per bull is the same as in the previous method. The bulls must be kept separate from the females and run for a couple of hours in the morning and evening.

With the brewing method, personnel intervention is not required, but it must be under its control. The specialist must mark the number of insemination and make sure that after the sexual intercourse the cow is removed from the pen. Otherwise, the bull may try to copulate with it again.

Free method

When using the free method, the sire is constantly located next to the herd. The male will not miss the hunting period and will stimulate sexual arousal. In addition, the number of successful cases increases. However, it is necessary to take into account the disadvantages of this method. With the free pairing, there is no breeding work, because the specialists cannot control insemination. In addition, the number of diseased cows is increasing.

Therefore, when using the free method, it is necessary to regularly examine cows and bulls, to conduct a blood test for the presence of leukemia, trichomoniasis, brucellosis and other diseases. If during the diagnosis the veterinarian finds wounds, ulcers and pustules or bleeding on the mucous membrane, the individual must be immediately resettled in order to exclude possible fertilization. Veterinary examinations should be carried out monthly.

Preparing a cow for calving

Pregnant females need to be prepared for childbirth about two months before they begin. During this period, the size of the fetus is almost doubled. At 7 months, it weighs no more than 10 kg, and at 9 months, these figures increase to 35 kg. It is very difficult to simultaneously obtain a large amount of milk, to ensure the preservation of the health of the female and the intrauterine development of the offspring. A cow needs rest, and this is only possible if you stop milking it.

In order for the calf to be born healthy and able to live, the female is not recommended to milk 1.5-2 months before giving birth. This will ensure the emergence of a high calf weight calf and the maintenance of an adequate level of dairy products. It is necessary to monitor the state of the udder of the animal.

Dry females need to be outdoors every day and move as much as possible. In this case, calving will pass easily, reducing the risk of developing postpartum complications and delaying the placenta. The uterus will recover faster, fertility will increase, the period until the next fertilization will be shorter.

Birth organization

When organizing childbirth, it is necessary to prepare a cow for them, to ensure the normal course of this process, to follow the rules of care by the female. If the birth is without complications, the animal does not need assistance.

It is important to monitor the appearance of the calf from the birth canal. If he leaves the hind limbs, you need to take them and slightly pull over to help the female. Otherwise, clamping of the umbilical cord may occur, and the fetus will not receive the necessary amount of oxygen. As a result, he risks drowning in the amniotic fluid.

To find out what limbs a calf goes, you need to look at the direction of their soles. The hind limbs are always pointing up, and the fore limbs are pointing down. You should not try to speed up the birth process, because it can lead to complications. It is impossible to force the fruit on yourself with your hands, to wrap it with ropes, to break the fruit bubble. You just need to closely monitor the process. The cow will do everything herself.

How is the birth process

Everyone who breeds cows of different age and sex groups needs to know that childbirth proceeds in three stages: preparatory, calf hatching, afterbirth elimination. In the preparatory stage, the muscles of the uterus begin to contract. Her neck expands, and the calf rotates 90-180 degrees. Then there is a rupture of the membranes, after which the amniotic fluid is poured out. Due to this, the birth canal is moistened and the fetus comes out easier.

At the time of removal of the fetus attempts occur - the contraction of the uterus, abdominal muscles and back. They last about one minute with a break of 2-3 minutes. In vain attempts, the calf exits through the birth canal.

In the stage of the afterbirth removal, the time between the appearance of contractions decreases. The pressure in the villaries decreases, so the connection between the placenta and the amniotic membrane weakens. By the end of the third stage, the fetus's placenta exits through the birth canal. After this, the birth process can be considered complete.

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