The ancestor of the domesticated cow is the wild bull tour, which, according to scientists, existed on the planet more than 7000 years ago. This type of cattle began to actively spread in the household during the early Neolithic period after sheep, pigs and goats. Later, people began to breed other types of cattle. Initially, only meat from wild cows and bulls was valued, but as agriculture developed, people began to use cattle as a trailing force.
Description of the first ancestor of the modern cow
The first domestic tours were incredibly resilient and productive. They had very long and massive horns.
Initially, a wild bull with huge horns served as a carrier of bulky goods between the countries of Europe, Africa, Asia Minor and the Caucasus. The appearance of the wild ancestor of cattle had the following data:
- the muscular animal reached a mass of 800 kg;
- height could range from 170 to 180 cm;
- males had a characteristic black color with a narrow strip of white outflow along the back;
- calves and adult females had a brown coat color with a reddish tint.
The diet of the ancient tours consisted of shoots, leaves of shrubs and trees, as well as a variety of forest grass. Animals preferred to gather in small groups or live alone, and only in the winter period could they gather in herds.
The last tour died in 1627.
North American Bison
North America is home to the largest herbivorous species of wild cattle - the North American bison. This animal reaches a height of 2 m and a length of 3 m.
The front part of the body is expressed most massively, while the back is characterized by poorly developed muscle mass. The head and partly the back of the animal are framed by felted wool. Bison have large horns that are developed in each individual in their own way. Most often, the bison is characterized by black color, but there may be brown, gray or white representatives.
North American bison are divided into steppe and forest. Steppe wild bulls are much smaller than forests, have a thicker coat and bang-covered horns.
North American individuals love open space, so they choose for their existence forest plains and glades, which transmit light to the maximum. Adult bison weigh over a ton. Individuals of the female, although they have massive dimensions, do not reach such a weight.
This type of cattle is difficult to distinguish from North American representatives, but, looking closely, you can see the characteristic key points of their appearance. The European bison is endowed with a well-marked head and a square figure with a brownish color against the background of the body.
The length of the bison body reaches 3 m, height - 2 m. The animal has a dark brown color of hair. Males have a pronounced mane.
The European bison is endowed with excellent hearing and scent, swims and jumps excellently. The duration of his life from 30 to 40 years.
In ancient times, in the meadows and pastures, one could observe the Caucasian subspecies of European cattle, which was distinguished by pronounced curly and thick hair.
Today in the European reserves contain Belovezhskaya specimens, which are the only descendants of the European ancient bison. In nature, this subspecies is protected by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Yak - wild bull with massive horns
This cattle subspecies is difficult to study, as it prefers to live far from people. Today, the yak can be found only in the highland Tibet, but even here there are very few of them left. They prefer to keep close-knit groups or settle in small families. Older individuals choose a solitary lifestyle.
The ferocious and strong yak has a long and shaggy coat that completely covers his legs. Animals can have a different color, but more often brown or black with a grayish tint are individuals with white markings on the head.
The main feature of this type of livestock is a characteristic hump on the back.
Male wild bulls reach 2 m in height and 4 m in length. Females have a length of 2.8 m, their height does not exceed 1.6 m. The horns of both sexes are very long (reach 95 cm). From the base of growth, they are directed in opposite directions, and as they are elongated they smoothly bend and acquire a cup-like shape. Yak can live 25 years.
Tamarau and Anoa
Tamarau belongs to the genus of Asian buffaloes. Endowed with short stature and short horns. The animal is 106 cm tall, 220 cm long, and its weight can vary from 180 to 300 kg. Color from black to dark brown.
Tamarau refers to the endangered species of buffaloes. In captivity, these animals can not breed, so their numbers are significantly reduced. They prefer a solitary lifestyle in forest areas, but cows and calves live together until the latter becomes independent. Tamarau are under strict security.
The smallest representative of cattle is considered to be the bull anoa. Male weight does not exceed 300 kg, female - 150 kg. The body cannot be longer than 160 cm in length, or 80 cm in height. These are hairless animals with a dark skin of brown or black color. Also, like Tamarau, anoas are endangered and protected by law. From 1079 to 1994, the population of the anoas decreased by 90%.
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