Among the cattle on the territory of Russia, the Kalmyk breed of cows is one of the most ancient. It was bred by nomadic Kalmyks, who lived in the mountainous and steppe regions of China, Central and Central Asia in very harsh conditions. Pasture content and harsh climate had a great influence on the formation of this breed. For a long time, hard natural selection was one of the important factors in the output of high-quality livestock representatives.
The appearance of Kalmyk bulls differs markedly from animals of the European breed. Their physique is very large. Most often there are representatives with red color, but sometimes it is red and white. Cows have a very thick coat, so they can be kept in harsh frosty conditions. The undercoat is thick and the outer coat is long. This allows them to stay warm even at low temperatures.
Also, when describing the characteristics of the Kalmyk breed, it is important to note that in the warm season, cows molt and are covered with smooth hair, which reflects ultraviolet light. Therefore, they can graze in the mountains and steppe areas.
Adult cattle reaches 130 cm at the withers. The average mass of cows is about 400 kg, and bulls - about 800 kg. The bull-maker weighs about a ton. There are early and late ripening intrabreed type. The first is smaller, and the representatives of the second are more powerful. This affects their temperament. Kalmyk female females can be very ferocious when their calves are in danger.
Kalmyk cows easily tolerate wind and heavy snow, because their hair is richly greased.
Kalmyk gobies are distinguished by pasture content. Animals mate right in the meadow. Here on the nature of the cow calves. The survival rate of young stock is very high. Even in severe weather conditions, about 95-98% of calves survive. This property distinguishes them from other breeds, which in similar living conditions lose their offspring much more often.
Cows ripen to 1.5 years, when their weight becomes about 300 kg. Closer to two years, the first offspring appears. Childbirth pass without any complications. The cows of this breed are very good mothers. They carefully protect calves even from the owner and never give them offense.
Most often, the offspring grows in human milk, so it quickly gains weight and rarely picks up any disease. This does not affect the profitability of the breed, since dairy products are not the main criterion for their breeding.
Content and nutrition
A Kalmyk cow can be kept on a pasture year-round and can walk up to 50 km in a day in search of food. But representatives of the breed can not graze in one place for more than a week. They need to be transferred to another territory, and returned back at least in a month. For a quick weight gain, cattle should be grazed on a meadow, the yield of which is about 10 quintals of grass per hectare.
In winter, cows can be placed in the barn. But, for example, in Kalmykia, animals graze even in severe frosts, because they can find food under the snow.
In order for the cattle to gain good body weight, the feed must be of high quality. Hay is most commonly used. In winter, animals are fed with silage from beet tops, corn, and various herbs. Also in the diet should include root vegetables. Body weight will increase better if you feed the cows feed.
Animals should always have a sufficient amount of clean drinking water, otherwise dehydration will quickly occur. If the cattle weighs about 250 kg, it takes 40 liters of fluid per day. With a weight over 350 kg - 65 liters of water. In the hot season, the amount of drinking should be increased by 25%.
The advantages and disadvantages of the breed
Kalmyk breed of cattle has several advantages and disadvantages. But it has much more pluses than minuses. Therefore, this type of livestock is in demand among breeders. The positive qualities include:
- unpretentious content;
- animal endurance;
- high amount of meat;
- fat milk;
- rapid puberty;
- no problem at the hotel;
- high survival of calves;
- the ability to eat coarse food;
- weight gain even with a small amount of feed.
The negative characteristics include the capricious nature of animals. They are even aggressive towards the owners. Especially if there are calves nearby. In addition, the minus is the appearance of meat. It is unattractive and has yellow streaks. But the external quality of products do not affect the taste. He's just great.
Meat and dairy performance
Kalmyk cow milk is not a priority product. But in the year, milk yield per individual is about a ton. There are cases when the figures reach three tons, but this is an exception to the rule. Fat content up to 4.5%.
Kalmyk breed is very valuable because the meat has high taste, despite its unpresentable appearance. With one carcass fat output can reach up to 69-70%, but on average about 60%. Fat is concentrated in the muscle tissue in the form of a layer. Bulls can be killed when by 1.5 years their body weight reaches 500 kg.
In the cold season, the indicators of meat are reduced by 50-60 kg, because the body fat becomes less. However, this does not affect the appearance of animals. They also look all plump and retain their constitution. It is better to kill cows and bulls in summer, when they gain up to 70 kg of fat.
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