At the moment, the Yakut breed of cows is almost the only one among the cattle, which has been overlooked by the breeders. In fact, it is an animal taken from the wild. As a result, shaggy Yakuts have unique characteristics. Milk and meat obtained from them are much higher in quality, fat content and content of useful microelements than their artificially derived sisters. Sounds intriguing? Then read on, for you, we laid out all the features of these cows in the "shelves".
Where did the Yakut come from
If the progenitor of all European breeds of cattle is considered to be the wild tour, then the Yakuts are a completely different branch. Genetically, these little furry cows are closer to the hunchbacked Indian zebu. The version is confirmed by the characteristic appearance and the presence of a small hump.
It is not known for certain how many years the breed and from where the relative of Indian cows has come from in such severe climatic conditions. But the first description dates from the end of the XVIII century. Travelers of those years call the Yakut cows "spawn" and note their phenomenal ability to survive in severe frosts.
In the late 20s of the last century, the young Soviet state took up animal husbandry. And the yakots began to actively cross with Simmental and Kholmogory cows. They wanted to get not only frost-resistant, but also highly productive breed.
The result was more than deplorable. New did not invent, but almost completely destroyed the natural herd. Now the real Yakuts remained in the Sakha Republic and in the nursery of Novosibirsk, about 1000 heads in total.
What are the Yakuts
In the Yakut cows, a thick fur coat immediately catches the eye. The level of "shaggy" with them can be compared only with the Scottish highland breed of cows, but they are slightly larger in size. Our cows are small, the height varies from 110 to 120 cm. The body, though small, is powerful. In general terms, the external parameters are as follows:
- strong small legs, moreover, the limbs are even, without genetic defects;
- small head with a powerful straight forehead;
- upward short horns slightly curved;
- neck is short and powerful; bulls are covered with folds;
- narrow butt;
- chest medium width;
- on the whole, the back is straight, with the exception of a small hump near the withers;
- udder covered with wool;
These cows do not have a specific "corporate" color, the palette varies from pure black or white to red and leopard.
In the summer, shaggy cows shed and most of the wool is shed, but by winter the density and length of the famous fur coat increase 6 times.
Theoretically, Yakut cows belong to the meat and dairy direction. They really make a real marbled beef. Plus, the output of meat is about 60%. And without artificial dressing and special content. But the problem is that the livestock is limited, and such cows are fabulously expensive. Therefore, there are no meat farms with Yakuts yet.
The maximum weight of an adult cow is barely up to 350 kg, subject to abundant feeding and a rich diet. In bulls, weight fluctuates around 400-500 kg. Yakut milk is also not thick. During the day she gives 5-7 liters of milk. But they have it of the highest quality.
The level of lactose, protein and trace elements product is considered one of the best in the world. And most of the pure-bred dairy cows even “did not dream” such fat content of milk. The average fodder in the northern areas without excesses is 6-8%. If the cow is well fed, then this figure rises to 11%.
Milk tastes sweetish and, although it is not enough, for the needs of a family of 4-6 people is enough. From milk comes out fat sour cream and good cottage cheese. And cheese makers especially appreciate this product. Cheeses from Yakut milk are excellent.
Parameters of young
Despite the harsh climatic living conditions, the Yakut cow gives birth to strong and healthy offspring. The survival rate of calves during childbirth and in the postpartum period is at least 97-98%. The calf is born small, up to 20 kg, which is also a plus. Indeed, the larger the fetus, the higher the likelihood of pathologies and postpartum injuries in the mother. And here often do not even have to call the vet, the owners themselves cope with calving.
With such fat milk as in yakutok, youngsters gain weight fairly quickly. On the feed, the minimum weight gain is 800 g per day. Filling with vegetables and hay can be started in 3-4 weeks, and by 6 months the goby can recover up to 200 kg. Animals gain full weight by the age of 1.5-2.
Sexual maturity in young animals comes to 7-8 months, and it is desirable to plan the first birth in heifers at about 2 years. The first one and a half months of life the calves are kept in a stable near their mother, the main thing here is that there should be no drafts. Although the cows are "frost-resistant", in the postpartum period they should be kept, if not warm, but not in an icy room. The temperature should be from 10 degrees above zero.
Subtleties of care and content
Yakuts eat a little, on average an adult individual for a day suffices 6 kg of hay. And if you add another kilo of vegetables, feed or silage, the cow will be just happy. In the warm season, the herd can be fully transferred to grass feed, they have enough of it. Moreover, frequent hauls to different pastures do not strain cattle.
In the literature they write that the Yakuts withstand temperatures down to -50 degrees and can sleep in the snow. Both of these statements are true. But keep in mind, with such an extreme content you should not expect a lot of milk with high fat content from animals.
In the summer and in the off-season, a cowsite is not needed at all; you can safely keep them in the open air. It is only advisable to build a shelter for the cows, they really do not like rain.
The nature of the yakutok calm and friendly. With the herd, you can safely let go of small children. A cow will never harm a child and will patiently endure all its mischief.
What are the disadvantages
One of the main disadvantages is a small fur-covered udder with small nipples. You can forget about machine milking immediately, cows are milked exclusively by hand. And many allow themselves to be milked only next to the calf, it is admitted to the udder at the beginning and at the end of milking. There are Yakuts who are milked even without calves, but this feature needs to be brought up from the first calving, taking into account the nature of a particular individual.
Yakut cows categorically do not accept artificial insemination. They must be covered only by a bull, otherwise you just “throw” valuable seed into the wind.
To some extent, a minus can be considered the increased jumping ability of the yakuts. This feature is especially pronounced in heifers during hunting and pregnancy. So it turns out that the cow is a little more than a meter, and the fence needs to be built at least 1.5 m tall. Otherwise, in all the neighborhood will have to chase the "fun" chick.
What is remarkable breed
The cow is very kind and strongly attached to the owner. According to the breeders, her loyalty is a bit like a dog. In winter, the Yakut cows, it is desirable to take daily for walks, and regardless of the temperature outside. The only exception is rain, but here they will not go anywhere.
The cows of the Yakut breed are distinguished by a truly good health. People who are lucky enough to buy such cows are practically not spent on veterinarians. The nightmare of any breeder is brucellosis, leukemia and cattle tuberculosis. Yakut cows have inborn, natural immunity to these ailments. Do not worry if in the winter the cattle decided to drink from the hole, it would not hurt her.
The content of the yakuts is also attractive because they look like horse manure. It does not smell so sharply and is much easier to clean. And for the private farmstead, where the shed is located next to the house, the problem of smell and manure is one of the first places.
These cows feel great in the middle zone of Russia, where in winter the temperature drops to -40 degrees, and in summer rises above 30. It is all about the ability of cows to drop and quickly grow wool.
How difficult is it to buy
Now the Yakut cow is rapidly gaining popularity. Judge for yourself, her milk is of the highest quality, eats little, is not ill, is not afraid of frost. Not a cow, but gold for a private residence.
But there is a serious problem. At the moment, in the center of Russia, as well as in Siberia and the Urals, the price of a real Yakut starts from 500 thousand rubles.
Of course, there is always the option to go to the Sakha Republic, where the largest population of this breed is. There Burenka will cost much cheaper. But in this case, you will have to pay a round sum for transportation, which can be even more expensive.
As you can see, the Yakut cows are unique and worth keeping them.
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