In Russia, the red steppe breed of cows is second in number. By their characteristics, the cows belong to the dairy type and are among the top five. Our "red" representatives are loved and appreciated for their high performance. In addition, the Krasnogorbat and red Danish cow is also grown for meat. Farms engaged in their breeding, receive a high stable income from sales.
History breeding red breeds
Red-steppe breed has more than three centuries. Her homeland was the Tauride province (now, Zaporizhzhya region), part of which is now the territory of Ukraine. The ancestors of the red steppe cows are the Ukrainian gray, red Ostflisland, Wilstermarch and Angel breed. The latter species became the progenitor of the Red Danish cows, which appeared in the middle of the XIX century. Animals, like most of the "red" breeds, are bred to produce both milk and meat.
Krasnogorbatovskie cows appeared somewhat later on the territory of our country in the Nizhny Novgorod region. Their story begins in the XIX century. The ancestors of meat and dairy cattle were the Prioksky and Tyrolean animal species. All classes of that time were engaged in growing Krasnogorbatovian cows, but today the popularity of animals is declining.
Not suitable for fattening.
The main characteristic of representatives of any breed is weight. Red steppe cows do not differ in record figures for weight gain. The adult chick grows up to 600 kg, the weight of bulls reaches 900-1000 kg.
This cattle belongs to the dairy type, as indicated by the following figures: one cow per year can produce up to 4500 l of milk, and these are the most averaged figures. Udoi champions breed reach up to 8,000 liters. The fat content of steppe cow milk is 3.5-4% - a high figure.
If we talk about meat, then the red cow is not suitable for fattening. Even with purposeful feeding of animals, the net weight of meat will not exceed 55%, which is absolutely not profitable for farmers, because to feed the red steppe heifers will take more money than you can get from selling their meat.
Like many centuries-old animal species, the red cow is notable for its endurance. It was easy to explain this phenomenon - in the 18th-20th centuries, bulls were used for agricultural work and breeding weak animals was inexpedient.
The indisputable advantage of steppe cows is unpretentious care and high adaptability to changes in climatic conditions. This is especially important for farms in our country, where weather conditions change quickly and suddenly.
There is another important point worth the attention of breed breeders. Red steppe cow has good immunity. In animals, calving passes easily, they rarely suffer from endometritis.
Probable disadvantages of steppe cows
When breeding rocks on large farms, there may be problems with milking. This is due to the fact that the red cow does not tolerate machine milking due to the incorrect structure of the udder. Shares develop unevenly, which can cause mastitis.
Breeders need to remember that red steppe cows are not recommended to graze in areas with hilly terrain. The reason for the ban is that the animals of this breed have weakly developed limbs. Walking along uneven terrain can lead to injury.
In general, animals of the red steppe type often have problems with the skeleton. Often there are individuals with poorly developed bones.
Danish Red Breed - Key Features
We can say that the red Danish breed of cows is a record holder in dairy performance. If it is good to take care of the bodies and feed them correctly, then from one cow you can get up to 17,500 liters of milk per year.
The average milk yield is about 8,000 liters from one cock. The fat content of the product is 4.1-4.2%. Such milk can be used for the production of cheese. It is also nice that it contains a lot of protein - up to 3.5%.
Red Danish breed belongs to the dairy-beef type of cattle, but especially for slaughter they are not often grown. This is due to the fact that at a high rate of weight gain - up to 1.4 kg per day, the yield of net production only slightly exceeds 50%.
Distinctive feature - weight is proportional to yield
Breeders have been breeding a red Danish breed for more than one hundred years. During this time, they noted the following features inherent in these animals:
- high fecundity and high survival rate of offspring;
- the Danish calf is almost never born dead;
- calving in cows proceeds easily and without consequences;
- high life expectancy;
- maintain high productivity throughout the life segment;
- good immunity, the main feature of which is the resistance of cows to mastitis and tuberculosis;
- high degree of adaptability.
Of course, the main property of red Danish cows is regular and high milk yield, increasing in direct proportion to the weight gain.
Defect in the lower back
Today, the description of the Danish breed overshadows only one drawback - slack waist. This has a negative effect on the formation of muscles and skeleton, and also causes poor absorption of salts and protein. This can cause a number of diseases. Eliminate this defect is not possible.
As for the already eliminated problems, the breeders have achieved an increase in the weight of newborn calves, an improvement in the external characteristics of the breed and the shape of the udder in cows. Thanks to the long-term work of breeders, the red Danish heifers quickly begin the period of lactation. Compared with other cows, they are distinguished by early maturation. If we talk about the nature of animals, they are frisky and active.
If you notice that the Danish cow behaves apathetically, then this is the first sign of the disease - be sure to consult your veterinarian.
Full match type
Despite the fact that the Krasnogorbatov breed of cows differs in standard dimensions and has average performance characteristics, animals are very popular among breeders. There are two reasons for this. The first is that the red Gorbatov breed calves grow rapidly, and the daily weight gain is up to 800 grams.
The second reason for their popularity is full compliance with the meat-and-milk type. In many farms, bulls are raised for slaughter, because the net weight of the resulting products is about 62%. This is quite a lot, despite the fact that animals are unpretentious in food, and their food is inexpensive.
Milk productivity of cows of this breed is also at the level and reaches 5000 liters per year. The main thing is that the yield obtained is of high quality and good fat content of 4.3-6%.
The main characteristics of hunchback cows
The Red Gorbatov breed of cows is widely demanded in domestic farms. In many ways, it is associated with good animal health. In addition, herders attract the following breed features:
- strong skeleton;
- high adaptive abilities;
- extremely high immunity;
- unpretentiousness in food, maintenance and care;
- high degree of survival;
- good productivity;
- do not lose weight even with poor feeding;
- high rate of weight gain.
Such characteristics make the breed one of the best among domestic cows and bulls.
Care and maintenance - recommendations for the "red" rocks
Red breeds of cattle are unpretentious, but care is needed for any animals. Cows need to be cleaned regularly, wash their udders, in the summer, bathe and trim the hoof. In the warm season they graze in pastures. In winter, the cattle are transferred to stall.
The pens must be prepared so that in the cold season the cows feel comfortable. It is important that the camps are spacious and warm. During wintering is recommended to maintain a certain daily routine.
Red breeds of cows are very popular in Russia. Gorbatovskaya, Danish and steppe - only the most common options grown in domestic farms. If you decide to join the cattle breeders of Russia, then choosing any of these breeds for breeding is the right decision.
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