Describing purulent mastitis in cows, it is necessary to emphasize the existence of its various forms. There are three of them, and each differs by the distribution area and the number of purulent bodies in the udder of the animal. Let us examine in turn the causes of appearance and clinical signs. As well as methods for the treatment of inflamed breast, which depend on the correct diagnosis and require a number of mandatory actions on the part of the veterinarian and the owner of cattle.
Changing the taste and type of milk
One of the types of purulent mastitis is with untimely or improper treatment of catarrh of the mammary gland in a cow. Therefore, the form is called purulent-catarrhal. Its main characteristic is the appearance in the alveoli and the milk ducts of the udder of exudate containing pus.
Immediately we will explain that pathogenic microorganisms cause the formation of pus, for example, staphylococcus or E. coli trapped in the udder of the cow. But most often you have to deal with streptococci, which are the most common type of pyogenic microbes.
Usually one part of the udder is affected, and this immediately becomes noticeable, since practically no milk is emitted from it. And if it is, it will taste salty or bitter. Its appearance also changes - a watery liquid with clots of flakes. Sometimes it happens that blotches appear in the milk.
Symptoms of agalactia
General signs of purulent-catarrhal mastitis in cows are clearly visible during an external examination of the udder and appear as follows:
- sick lobe looks bigger than the rest;
- pronounced swelling;
- fever in the area of inflammation felt by the hands;
- when feeling the animal worries because of pain;
- udder skin is in a state of tension;
- the lymph node located on the part of the patient's lobe is clearly enlarged.
By the general condition of the cow, it is clear that she is unhealthy. This is usually manifested in the deterioration of appetite, frequent breathing, increased pulse beat and general depressed mood.
The described symptoms clearly speak of an acute course of the disease - agalactia. After a few days, the condition of the sick cow changes. And the inflammatory process proceeds to the next stage.
Description of the chronic form
However, this transition does not mean a cow's recovery. And although the body temperature decreases, and the affected part of the udder does not cause anxiety during palpation, the milk still doesn’t taste good. It becomes yellowish and filled with mucous substance. Symptoms suggest that a chronic form has begun.
Skipping the development of the disease in the initial stage, you will have to continue to deal with more serious consequences. In a patient with a quarter of an udder, tissue degeneration occurs with subsequent atrophy, which leads to a decrease in the volume of the mammary gland. The structure of the tissue is compacted, and cysts and nodules form at the nipple.
Usually, the purulent-catarrhal form of mastitis affects only one lobe. But if the farm does not comply with sanitary rules, then microbes can easily be brought to other parts of the udder. Especially susceptible to such infection of the cow after calving, when the body is weakened by childbirth.
Water - the benefits and harm
When making a diagnosis, it is advisable to confirm it by microscopic examination. For proper treatment of the cow, it is important to determine the stage of the disease. If the device shows long chains of microbes (more often streptococci), then it means that chronic form of purulent mastitis has already arrived. If the chains are still short, then the acute course of the disease lasts.
In any case, treatment begins with the transfer of the cow to a separate stall. It provides a soft dry bedding. Pasture pastures stop until full recovery. The diet is changing. The basis is dry hay, without any juicy feed (carrots, fresh grass, potatoes). The amount of water to drink is also reduced. Such a diet leads to a decrease in the amount of milk produced by the udder.
In acute purulent-catarrhal form, donating is carried out every two hours. In chronic - less often - in 4-5 hours. In addition, it is recommended to cool the affected part of the udder with water 5-6 times a day. This is done to strengthen the filling of blood vessels.
Udder must shake
To remove exudate accumulated there from the mammary gland, many veterinarians use a solution of rivanol in the proportion of 1: 5000. It is poured into the udder through the nipple using a catheter or a special syringe. You can use other antiseptics, for example, Ichthyolum (3%) or manganese (1: 500).
Do not enter into the udder too much of these drugs. The principle of "more means better" in this case does not work. 250 ml of solution is enough, otherwise the infection will simply disperse to the healthy areas of the affected udder portion.
Before the introduction of any medication, the milk inside must be completely milked. Make a light massage of the udder, the direction of strokes - from the top down to the nipples. Periodically you need to shake the udder, as if pushing the milk to the exit.
We increase the effect
After the cow is introduced into the nipple of the above preparations, the mammary gland is massaged again. Now for better contact medication with purulent formations. Within two hours give the opportunity to fight antiseptics with microbes. Then the spent solution is dispensed.
Instead of a syringe for injection into the udder, you can use the Bobrov apparatus, which includes a glass flask, a dense stopper, a set of glass and rubber tubules, a pear for inflating air. With the help of this device pressure is created, and the liquid placed in the flask enters the teat canal through the tubes.
To enhance the effect of treatment, an intramuscular or subcutaneous sick cow is given a shot of oxytocin (50-60 units). You can apply and pituitrin in the same dosage.
In the first days of the disease, when the cow is in severe pain, a blockade of nerve endings in the udder is created with a 0.5% solution of trimekain.
Different approach to help
Of the antibiotics for the treatment of acute purulent-catarrhal forms in the line of modern products, we recommend Cefoperazone or Cefotaxime intramuscularly. Dosages - 200-350 mg per 100 kg of cow weight.
Penkillin and streptomycin, fulfilling their functions in good faith, are still in demand. This win-win classic is used 3-4 days in a row for 5 thousand units. per kilogram of weight of a sick cow.
For local administration in the mammary gland, use Penersin (15 ml) or Masticid (20 ml). They are produced ready for use in special plastic syringes. Duration of use - up to 5 days, frequency - once a day.
However, these funds do not give a good effect at the chronic stage, because the atrophy of the main tissues of the udder has already come. To prevent the spread of the disease to healthy lobes, use solutions of lapis (1%) or iodine (5%). The introduction of 200 ml of these drugs is also carried out directly into the mammary gland through a special catheter.
Support the body of the cow
Modern medicine offers a great variety of different drugs to combat purulent mastitis. Cefazolin, mamifort sekado, cefuroxime, mastisan-A, neomycin, ecminovocillin ... It is not difficult to get confused in such abundance. To know exactly what and how to apply, you need to contact your veterinarian. If possible, he will make an analysis of the sensitivity of the cow to antibiotics and determine the means that will act on pathogens with the greatest efficiency.
In the treatment of purulent mastitis, it must be remembered that the use of any kind of drugs, especially antibiotics, causes the destruction of the epithelium of the mucous membranes of the udder. It is therefore very important during this period to support the body of the cow by injecting vitamin injections.
Injections of tetravit (or trivitamin) are given intramuscularly in accordance with the instructions. They increase the body's resistance and support the cow’s immunity.
Distinguishing mark - lameness
Another form of purulent mastitis in cows is an udder abscess. At the same time, the neoplasms behave differently. They may be distributed over the entire diseased lobe or, on the contrary, may be grouped in one place. In the worst cases, an abscess fills most of the udder with a purulent mass.
The main signs of an abscess are the same as during purulent-catarrh. However, a limp is added. The cow begins to crouch on one of the hind legs, depending on the side where the abscess is located.
If the purulent masses are scattered throughout the udder, then during external examination and palpation they can be overlooked. However, the total swelling of the breast will be noticeable. The ulcers concentrated in one place form a pronounced tumor, which is easy not only to feel, but to see. It is formed by the merger of several ulcers into one. There are also several such mergers.
Let the pus burst out
For any type of abscess, the milk obtained from the udder of a cow contains flakes. If inside the gland ulcers are opened, their contents also get into the milk, often with drops of blood. There are cases of their opening through the skin of the udder out.
The opposite process is also observed, when the abscesses do not open at all, but turn into hard capsules. And this will be the worst development of the disease. Indeed, when a capsule is formed, the tissues located around completely cease to function. As a result, their atrophy (parenchyma) occurs. Therefore, after recovery, it is impossible to fully restore the milk productivity of the cow.
Opened abscesses leave scars on the skin, but they do not affect the changes in the amount of milk produced by the cow, so it is better to let the pus burst out.
For accurate diagnosis requires special analysis, which is done in laboratory conditions. Material for the study taken with a syringe through a puncture in the abscess.
With low body resistance of the cow to mastitis during the treatment of an abscess, attention should be paid to the liver, lungs and kidneys of the animal. It is possible the development of metastases (or septicopyemia).
During the treatment of abscesses, the animal is provided with complete rest and comfortable conditions. As with other forms of udder disease, withdrawal from the diet of juicy foods and frequent manual seeding are relevant. If the ulcers are scattered throughout the udder of the cow, then Ichthyol ointment or Vishnevsky will help. Thermal procedures are shown, but without massage. Remember that with purulent processes this type of intervention will bring only harm.
Abscesses located close to the skin surface can be opened with a scalpel, making a neat incision. After removing the pus, drainage is inserted (gauze soaked in turpentine), which changes three times during the day.
From deep abscesses, pus is removed with a syringe. Then a solution of ichthyol (5%) or iodine (2%) is also administered there.
Signs of phlegmon
If the abscesses spread under the skin of the udder and spread through the connective tissue, then this form of purulent inflammation of the mammary gland is called phlegmon. Often it is a complication after an udder injury, a continuation of the development of serous mastitis or abscess.
However, sometimes it occurs by itself if, through wounds on the skin, the causative agents of purulent infections fall into the udder. These can be, among other things, excretions from diseased cow genitals.
In addition to the temperature of up to 41 degrees, swelling and painful tension, there are marked "stony" udder and severe lameness. When pressed on the mammary gland does not form pits, and the vessels clearly appear on the skin.
Milk yield is also sharply falling, the outgoing secret is gray. Microscopic analysis of milk has a large accumulation of leukocytes.
Especially high risk of infection in cows before calving and after it, when the body is weakened by childbirth.
About the methods of struggle
Cellulitis develops rapidly, and toxins are also rapidly absorbed, which is manifested by fever and sepsis. The prognosis for recovery is unfavorable.
The treatment of a cow is ensured by the creation of a calm atmosphere, the elimination of watery feeds and frequent manual sowing. Locally on the udder apply camphor or ichthyol ointment. It is shown warmly, it is possible to put bags with heated sand.
The ulcers are opened by cuts, after which drainage is made by introducing into the wound of pieces of bandage, soaked with a hypertonic solution.
Antibiotics are used in the same doses and with the same cyclical nature as in an abscess. To maintain cardiac activity, 20 ml of caffeine (20%) is injected subcutaneously. And to increase the body's resistance to the cow, a solution of 40% glucose (200 ml) and 10% calcium chloride (100 ml) are injected.
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