Most often, serous mastitis occurs in cows after calving. Especially great is the danger of catching an infection for young cows who have settled down for the first time. This is due to a lack of strong immunity. But quite adult animals do not overlook the attack, especially if the brute has some postpartum diseases, such as endometritis or uterine subinvolution. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract become allies in the development of udder inflammation.
Description of the process of infection
An inflamed udder with characteristic exudate effusions (fluid released from the blood vessels) in the tissue is the clinical manifestation of serous mastitis in a cow. The spread of proteins, leukocytes and microbes contained in small vessels of the mammary gland begins with the fiber of the skin and continues to enter the enlarged cavities between the alveoli.
The ongoing process causes cow udder edema, which is the result of exposure to pathogenic organisms. The accumulating serous exudate violates the functions of the breast, squeezing the tissues forming it. This form of mastitis is considered acute, that is, pronounced. In the exudate secreted neutrophils dominate (subspecies of leukocytes).
There are two types of transmission from one cow to another. The first type is hematogenous, that is, through blood. The second is lymphogenous, through the lymph. In any case, the outcome is one - mastitis. And it was obtained as a result of injury or damage to the skin of the udder. It is through the formed wounds that the infection enters the body of cattle, causing inflammation.
"Stone" udder does not give a lot of milk
Serous mastitis usually affects one part of the udder. In appearance, it will be more than other shares. When feeling her immediately fever. The cow responds to touch with anxiety, as it hurts when viewed. Its udder is made "stone", that is, very dense. Sometimes closely located lymph nodes increase in size.
The manifestation of the above symptoms in cows is characteristic of another pathology - congestive edema. Therefore, it is important to carefully study the medical history and correctly determine the diagnosis before starting to treat the animal. If the udder skin is very red, then this is a clear sign of serous mastitis. Drawing attention to this factor, you will not confuse these two diseases.
And yet - with serous mastitis, the milk produced at first does not differ from normal at first, but as the pathology develops it becomes liquid and, as it were, bluish in color. Clots appear in it - these are casein flakes.
Ban on walking and lush grass
The first rule during the treatment of serous mastitis in a cow provides a stall. This means that as soon as the signs described above were detected in the cows, they stop being driven out to pasture and they are limited to communication with other representatives of the herd. This measure will protect other animals from infection.
The second rule - the restriction of fluid intake. The amount of water in the drinker is reduced by approximately half. At the same time, the diet of the sick cow changes. During this period she should not be given succulent feed. These include:
- fresh grass;
- pumpkins and watermelons;
- beets and carrots;
- silage and tops.
All these feeds are of plant origin, they contain from 70 to 90% of water. In a healthy state, they are very useful for cows and help to increase the productivity of livestock. But with serum mastitis, milk production should be limited, which is why they should be excluded. For the same reason, giving concentrates is limited. The main food for this period is dry hay.
Frequent change as part of treatment
To release a sick udder from the exudate formed in it, containing millions of microbes, the cow needs to be milked every 4-5 hours. And you need to do it only with your hands. Such frequent intervention will relieve pressure inside the breast tissue.
However, the process of donating in this case is unusual and involves some manipulations. After the udder of the cow is washed with warm water, a light massage is done, and then the milking is performed directly until it is completely free from the milk there.
If, despite all efforts, it is impossible to free the affected part of the udder from the liquid contained in it, use hormonal preparations. 5–10 pituitrin units will suffice per 100 kg of animal weight. That is, for a cow with an average weight of 400 kg, 20-40 units of medicine are taken intravenously into the jugular vein. After that, you can immediately begin to re-attempt milking. If the drug is administered intramuscularly, then you need to wait 10-15 minutes and only then try again to release the udder from the milk residues.
In the same way and in the same dosages can be applied oxytocin.
Catheter - the exclusive invention of veterinarians
With the release of the milk of a cow from the milk contained therein, an unexpected moment may arise when the flow of fluid from the nipple will be difficult. This means that the udder ducts are "clogged" with clots and casein flakes. In this case, infusion is made through the nipple directly into the affected part of the udder of sodium bicarbonate. A solution of 2% in the amount of 50 ml is usually taken. Before use, it should be slightly heated - up to 28-30 degrees.
For the introduction of a special used milk catheter. This exclusive invention came up with veterinarians specifically for the treatment of diseases of the udder of a cow. The average length of the catheter is 40 mm. It is a tube with a connecting cannula, it has four holes and is made of a special material that does not give in to corrosion. If necessary, it can be put on a syringe. A catheter installed in the nipple allows 100% removal of cow exudates from the udder along with milk.
After the introduction of the medication in the nipple should wait about 20-30 minutes. Then thoroughly milk the cow.
Approximate treatment regimen
It is necessary to treat a cow suffering from serous mastitis under the supervision of a doctor, as the scheme may change every day. If there is no possibility to contact a veterinarian, then we suggest using our recommendations.
On the first day of illness, inject 10 ml of dexafort into a cow, if it is in a state of dry. An injection is given intramuscularly once. Then, also inject 10% of enhemycin at the rate of 3 ml per 50 kg of animal weight. Enter a solution of glucose (40%) and calcium chloride (10%) in a 1: 1 ratio into a vein. A volume of 300 ml will be quite enough. Do not forget about frequent and full milk delivery from the affected part of the udder.
If the cow shows that she has pain in the area of the breast, then block her. To do this, use a solution of 0.5% novocaine. The injection site is the point between the anus and the root of the tail.
On the second day, restrict breast massage. The direction of the movement is from bottom to top. Massage the udder of a sick cow should be at least three times a day for 20 minutes.
On the third day, intravenous administration of a solution of glucose and calcium chloride is repeated, and an udder wrap is added after applying camphor ointment (twice a day).
If a cow fell ill during lactation, then on the first day, cobactan (2.5%) is made instead of engemycin, the dosage is 2 ml per 50 kg of animal weight.
For cows, serum mastitis can be a serious danger if the following safety measures are not taken in the care and maintenance of cattle:
- ensure strict adherence to sanitary standards in the premises where the cows are located;
- It is imperative to separate sick animals from healthy ones to prevent the spread of infection;
- on large farms, regularly process equipment used for milking cows;
- create comfortable conditions for keeping livestock (stall without drafts and dampness);
- conduct systematic veterinary examinations of cows to identify the disease.
Timely treatment of serous mastitis allows you to get rid of it within 8-10 days. The particular danger of the disease lies in the complications in case of late treatment of the cow. The inflammatory process in the alveoli may become chronic. To reveal it, and, especially, to get rid of the hidden pathology is much more difficult.
Disinfection during lactation
In the prevention of cattle disease with serous and other forms of mastitis, disinfection of nipples plays an important role. This pharmacological method is widely used on large farms in Russia and in many other countries where they breed cattle. It is useful where machine milking machines are used.
Typically, pathogens accumulate in the udder where the skin has folds and wrinkles. As soon as the camera is connected to the nipples of the cow, they easily penetrate into the mammary gland. The essence of the method of combating pathogenic microorganisms is to immerse the nipples immediately after milking in a solution of iodine or chlorine.
The exposure time for the destruction of microbes - 3-5 seconds. These moments are enough to prevent the disease of the cow with mastitis. Acid-containing solutions can also be used as a disinfectant.
This method is used to prevent infection of cows during the lactation period.
Color Rainbow for Udder Protection
During the dry period, prevention of mastitis in cows is carried out in two ways. One of them involves the creation of a mechanical barrier. To do this, apply a film-forming composition to the mammary gland. This may be a special tool Lactovit, made on the basis of lactic acid.
The drug based on chlorhexidine Vortex Kliovit also gives good protection to cows from infection. It can be used continuously as a hygienic means for breast care. It contains allantoin, which moisturizes the skin of the udder and makes it soft. D-panthenol contained there promotes the healing of wounds, and sorbitol nourishes the skin.
Due to its thick consistency, the product keeps well on the skin of the udder and does not trickle down. After applying the drug forms a red film. It is very clearly visible, and it retains its protective properties until the next milking of the cow.
There are protective means and other shades. For example, in Belarus they produce a solution for treating an udder of a blue cow. In order to create a mechanical barrier, the nipple is lowered into a cup with liquid, and it is covered with a thin biopolymer film that protects it from pathogenic microflora. The composition of this tool contains beeswax, which enhances protection.
Among other products designed specifically to protect the udder of the cow, we note "Compol DC Film", made on the basis of organic acids. It has a green color and has an effect similar to that described above.
Sanitation is the best way to prevent disease
The second way to protect the mammary gland of cows in the dry period involves sanation. It consists in a comprehensive, regular examination of the udder and milk sampling.
During analyzes, the drug "Nafpenzal DC", which produces the medical industry of the Netherlands, is used. It is intended not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of any type of mastitis in cows. It is used once.
The suspension is pumped into each lobe of the mammary gland, followed by delivery. Two weeks later, the cows take a secret from the udder for testing using special tests. To date, this method is considered the most effective.
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