The standard classification of mastitis in cows has many different species. Each of them has peculiar symptoms and different treatment methods. It is very important to determine the exact form of the disease when an animal is affected. Otherwise, an incorrect diagnosis and, accordingly, incorrect assistance provided may play a fatal role for the animal. Although mastitis is not in itself a deadly disease, they can put the health of a dairy cow at risk.
Dangerous for any livestock
There is no country in the world where cows would not suffer from mastitis. People learned this disease from the very moment they started breeding domestic cattle. The disease was first described by French veterinarians in 1884. At all times, dairy cattle breeding suffered massively from this pathology by the deterioration of product quality and considerable expenses for therapeutic and preventive measures.
Udder inflammation (mastitis) in a cow should be treated with the utmost attention. This is especially true of dairy breeds. Milk sick cow unsuitable for food. But those individuals that are grown for meat production must have healthy mammary glands, because they have to feed calves.
Despite the fact that mastitis initially affects only a cow udder, in the subsequent disease leads to intoxication of the whole organism. In addition to cattle, they suffer from other animals and even people.
Classification by type of origin
To eat the udder of a sick animal for food is impossible, it is disposed of without fail. And the carcass itself is subjected to research on the content of pathogenic bacteria. According to the results, the veterinary-sanitary service gives an assessment and decides what to do with it further. And all this only on the condition that the mastitis was of non-infectious origin. The reasons for its occurrence are as follows:
- poor-quality milking (part of the milk remains in the udder;);
- udder injuries (scratches, cuts, bruises);
- poor cattle content (dampness, dirt, drafts);
- cracks in the nipples (a concomitant phenomenon in other diseases).
If mastitis began as a result of an infection, such as streptococcus or staphylococcus, then the matter is very bad. Such meat has to be destroyed.
A cow's udder is a very vulnerable organ that can suffer as a result of mechanical (malfunctioning milking machine), physical (burn or frostbite), and chemical (acid or alkaline solutions) damage.
Depending on what factors influenced the occurrence of inflammation of the udder, depends on the methods of treatment.
Hidden and explicit forms
As stated above, for reasons of mastitis in cows are divided into two types. But, in addition, there is another classification. For example, they are distinguished by the form of manifestation. If all signs of the disease are present, then this form is open.
But it happens in a different way. Hidden mastitis, when outwardly the cow has no obvious symptoms of the disease, is most dangerous. It is difficult to detect, the process is sluggish. However, it systematically exerts its negative influence on the quantity and quality of milk yields, forcing them to reject animals. In addition, it causes pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in adults and leads to the death of young calves. Among the most common and pronounced forms of inflammation of the udder are the following:
The severity of the disease allows you to divide the types of mastitis in a cow according to the nature of the disease. If the cow has sharply increased temperature, edema of the udder is clearly visible, eyes sink, increased fever, and frequent and weak pulse, then this is an extremely acute form.
In moderately acute course, the diagnostic signs are the same, but they are much weaker. You can be confident in the pathology, if yellow flakes appear in the milk. In both forms, all of these phenomena are observed within two weeks.
During the subacute course of mastitis, systemic signs of swelling of the udder and impaired secretions in the glands are not very pronounced. And in chronic course, it is even more difficult to determine mastitis. For several months, a cow can be in a semi-sick state, as it were, without receiving any assistance. As a result of prolonged inflammation after recovery, the udder portion that has survived can completely atrophy. For the owner, the urgency of the resulting milkiness and the presence of flakes in it can be a signal for an urgent examination.
It is very difficult to identify a subclinical type of the disease. You cannot make cheese and cottage cheese from the milk of a sick cow, let alone drink it. You will learn more about this variety by reading the article "Subclinical mastitis in a cow." And now we will talk about a special test for mastitis, which helps to reveal the hidden form. It is done with a special device called the Mastiton.
Approximately 20 ml of milk is dispensed from the nipple into a special container on the device. Landmark - full electrode coverage. After that, turn on the device to the network and wait two seconds until the result appears on the display. After recording the readings, wash the bowl and repeat the test for all other nipples.
If the result is recorded on the scale up to 450 units, then everything is in order, this proportion of the udder is healthy and there is no mastitis. When the readings are higher and reach the mark of 600 - a latent infection is possible. If the mark has passed for 600 units - there is an aggravation process.
But know that for complete confidence and accurate diagnosis of mastitis in a cow, the test must be done at least three times. By the way, the milk of animals that have undergone the disease in this analysis can give dubious results until the inflammation has passed completely.
Thorough inspection is important
If you suspect clinical mastitis, first of all, you need to examine the cow. Check her pulse, measure the temperature, listen for breathing. It would not be superfluous to pay attention to the lymph nodes and skin, to analyze the work of the intestines and the stomach. Udder must be carefully palpated. Such a serious examination will reveal the characteristic features: a seal in the udder, a violation of the integrity of blood vessels, a discrepancy in the size of the udder lobes, a change in skin color and condition of hair.
Wrinkling the nipple with your fingers, you can feel, for example, the presence of "stones". At the same time, the cow's pain threshold will clearly be noticeable. She will be worried. Palpable lymph nodes in normal condition have a diameter of 9-10 mm, and a length of 75-80 mm. Other dimensions speak of pathology.
For general information, you should know whether there were similar diseases in the household before. On large farms, where machine milking is used, the condition of the units is checked for good condition and sanitation.
Characterized by pain and heat
The catarrhal form of mastitis can occur in a cow at any time, but most often it manifests itself during the first days after the start of lactation. Feeling the udder, you can not immediately notice the inflammation and compaction of the affected lobe. However, in a week the formed knots are already well felt by the fingers. This determines the type of disease.
Swelling of the udder with a serous form is noticeable immediately after calving. For other signs and possible ways to treat this variety, see the article "On serous mastitis in cows."
If when you touch the udder, the cow shows anxiety, showing that it hurts, it means that the inflammation of the mammary glands can have a fibrous form. In this case, the animal begins to fever due to the increase in temperature to 41 degrees. Appetite is completely absent. And the amount of milk during the milking literally immediately decreases significantly. Moreover, after three or four days, it completely stops coming out of the nipples.
Pus and blood in milk
With all the types of mastitis presented in cows, yellow flakes are observed in the milk. Very thin line between fibrous and purulent species. Their external signs are the same. But in the latter, the milk becomes similar to the yellowish water due to the admixture of pus. In addition, it is made slightly salty. The details of the symptoms can be found in the article "Purulent mastitis in a cow."
If time does not reveal catarrhal or serous mastitis, they can turn into a hemorrhagic form. It is considered a complication of the disease and the main symptom of manifestation is blood in the milk. It usually develops after calving and can affect not only one share of the udder, but all of it as a whole.
Diagnosis of mastitis at home is only possible approximately. But she gives her favor. Having found the depressed state of the animal and the other described symptoms of inflammation of the udder, the caring owner of the cow will not sit with folded arms, but will immediately consult a doctor.
Studies before and after the death of a cow
To accurately diagnose the infection and determine its appearance, bacteriological analyzes are performed. Learn the secrets of udder and milk. Epizootological studies help identify the specific type of pathogen. Only after accurate analyzes the veterinarian is able to prescribe an effective treatment. We give some tips on this topic in the article "Mastitis in cows: symptoms and treatment."
If the cow cannot be saved, its organs are examined and examined by pathologists by dissection. Usually found enlarged lymph nodes, which are clearly visible hemorrhages. The same indicators are characteristic of the lungs, they usually look swollen. As a rule, all the alveoli are filled with secrets secreted by the cells of the body.
During the autopsy studies there are certain phenomena characteristic of a particular type of mastitis. So, for example, if a cow had a purulent form, then there would be abscesses and purulent-necrotic inflammation in the udder. And if it was a streptococcal infection, then the udder will be atrophied.
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