About Yaroslav breed cows


Yaroslavl breed of cows gives tasty and fat milk. A representative of this type brings up to 3500 li per year. Yaroslavl cattle breeders were bred by long-term selection by suit. After some time, the selection began to be carried out on milk yield and fat content. Good adaptation qualities contributed to the spread of cattle in the Tver, Yaroslavl, Vologda and Ivanovo regions.

A brief history excursion

At the end of the XIX century, in many parts of the Yaroslavl province began the purposeful breeding of its own breed of cattle. It was derived on the basis of local cows, selected on the exterior (mainly by suit). At the beginning of the 20th century, the selection criterion was the productivity of animals, that is, they took cows that produce the highest amount of full-fat milk.

The increase in the number of livestock of Yaroslavl livestock was preceded by increased demand for livestock products. The number of residents in the province itself and in nearby regions increased. The appearance of convenient road connections to Moscow and St. Petersburg made it possible to sell dairy products to districts distant from Yaroslavl. In 1880, the cheese and butter industry began to develop actively. Unusual indicators of milk produced by the described breed could not go unnoticed.

Soon the representatives of Yaroslavl cattle became regular participants of exhibitions and fairs. By the mid-80s of the last century, the number of animals was over 800 thousand heads. Today, the Yaroslavl livestock of cattle does not reach up to 300 thousand individuals. And this figure continues to decline. However, the breed is under the careful control of specialists because of its wide selection value.

External signs

The peculiarity of the external data of the Yaroslavl breed of cows and gobies is the black coloring of the body with white patches on the body (mainly on the lower part) and on the head. Also white is the tail and legs. Less often, you can find a completely black color animals. When breeding cattle of Yaroslavl suit with other breeds, the color of their wool may acquire a reddish-brown or red-and-white shade.

The weight indicators of the breed are as follows: cows have a body weight ranging from 450 to 550 kg, in bulls 700-900 kg. Very rarely, but there are representatives weighing up to 1200 kg. The weight of newborn calves is 27-32 kg, by 6 months their body weight reaches 160-170 kg.

We give a description of the distinctive characteristics of the Yaroslavl breed of cows:

  • a small head with medium sized horns with darkening on its tips;
  • the thin and long neck is covered with small folds;
  • angular torso with poorly developed muscular system;
  • average size of the sternum (about 68-70 cm);
  • short limbs with strong joints;
  • thin skin has practically no fat under its cover;
  • cylindrical nipples cup-shaped udder located at a great distance from each other.

Efficiency of the Yaroslavl cows

The fat content of cow's milk is from 4 to 4.2%. Stories are known cases of a record fat composition of dairy products - 6.1%. The protein content of the product varies from 3.4 to 3.7%. Average milk yield - from 2700 to 3500 kg of milk per year. A record of 11,590 kg from one cock was achieved by creating the best conditions for keeping cattle.

From the milk of Yaroslavl cows, the processed products are magnificent in their taste characteristics: cheese, butter, kefir, cottage cheese, ryazhenka. But the yields are significantly inferior to their foreign counterparts of many well-known breeds. For this reason, there is a noticeable reduction in the number of livestock of Yaroslavl cattle. Despite the excellent taste and nutritional properties, farmers, in pursuit of greater profits, prefer higher-yield breeds.

Breed benefits

Yaroslavl cow has excellent immunity to various types of diseases. It is less likely to be infected with leukemia than other animals, which leads to a decrease in milk yield.

Cows are easy to calf and bring up to five calves during reproductive age.

Yaroslavl representatives picky in nutrition. They are actively used in the selection of other types of dairy cattle. This is due to the fact that animal genes are endowed with a good ability to transmit the dairy characteristics of their species.

The bulls and cows of the Yaroslavl breed perfectly adapt to various weather conditions, quickly get used to the new climate when changing their place of residence, and easily tolerate changes in the diet. It was these abilities that led to their spread throughout Russia. Breeders breed them in small and large farms.

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