In dairy and meat farms, Schwyz cow is very popular. Inexperienced pastoralists, beginning to breed cattle, prefer this species for early ripeness, fecundity and productivity. Schwyckian cows are famous for their longevity, and even in adulthood they give a good milk yield, while their meat remains tender. Interest in animals is also great because they are distinguished by excellent health - this simplifies the care of the herd.
History of Schwyz breed
Brown shvitsky breed of cows got its name in the XIV century by analogy with the name of the town that became its homeland. Canton Schwyz is located in the central part of Switzerland. It was there that the breed first appeared, which later spread throughout the world. Having gained popularity, Swiss cows were used to breed new breeds in other countries.
With her participation appeared Russian Kostroma, Kazakhstan Alaut, Ukrainian Lebedin and Caucasian. New types of animals received the properties of the Swiss breed, but adapted to the conditions of the local climate.
Scientists who created Schwicz, tried to achieve high milk and meat productivity and the possibility of using animals for household needs. To do this, they took short-legged cattle, distinguished by high endurance. Today, Swiss cows are not used on the farm, but their endurance has become the basis of good immunity, which distinguishes the breed from other cattle representatives.
The prevalence of Swiss on the territory of Russia
In Russia, the Swiss breed of cows was recognized at the end of the 19th century. Only prosperous landowners could allow themselves to breed animals, since the maintenance of cows and bulls required large investments. For ordinary peasants, such luxury was inaccessible.
Animals are raised in 10 regions of the country, which is dictated by natural and climatic conditions. In the aggregate, cows and bulls of this type make up 2.5% of the total weight of cattle raised in Russia.
It is recognized that the breed is considered the best in meat and dairy characteristics. Farmers who rely on milk production and meat production, acquire these animals for breeding. It is possible to buy cows of this breed for the price of about $ 1000 per head.
Distinguishing features of the breed
The general description of animals of this species begins with the fact that all individuals differ in body proportionality. Outwardly, Schwyz breed can be distinguished by the following features:
- powerful bone skeleton;
- large body size;
- average height;
- right limbs;
- elastic skin;
- brown color.
It is important for breeders to know that some of the parameters of the animals depend on the breed. There are only three of them: meat and dairy - they are distinguished by smaller dimensions and poorly developed udder, milk and meat - the most harmonious of the tribesmen and dairy - is distinguished by a stretched body and less developed muscles.
Breed productivity in facts
One Swiss cow produces up to 3.5 tons of milk per year, the fat content of which reaches 4%. Often from the milk of these cows produce different varieties of cheese. In large farms, champions show milk yield up to 10 tons per year.
Now with regards to young bulls. At birth, their weight is approximately 40 kg. Following the recommendations, the conditions of feeding and housing, by one year they will reach 250 kg, and after another 6 months of life their weight will increase to 370 kg. Adult cows reach a weight of 500-800 kg, while bulls grow to 800-1100 kg.
Proper feeding of young stock allows you to increase the weight of the animal by 1000 g per day. Livestock grows quite plump, and when slaughtering the net weight of meat is 60% of the total weight of the carcass.
Advantages of Schwyz
Any cattle raised today has pros and cons. Schwyz breed of cows, first of all, is famous for its high dairy performance and meat productivity. In addition, the following advantages of cattle should be highlighted:
- excellent immunity;
- fast ripening;
- the development of reproductive function;
- melancholic character;
- high degree of adaptation;
- good endurance;
- the quality of the products.
The farms engaged in breeding the breed need to know that work on improving the species continues. This suggests that Swiss farms should periodically purchase new livestock.
Disadvantages of the form
Since the cows of the Schwyz breed are still at the advanced stage, scientists are working to eliminate some of the shortcomings of animals. One of them is high fastidiousness in food. A lot of money is spent on feed for cattle of this type.
The biggest negative characteristic of the Schwyz breed of cows lies in the low rate of return of milk, which greatly delays the process of milking. In a minute, about 1,300 g can be milked from heifers, which is significantly lower than the milk yield of other dairy breeds.
Another fly in the honey bucket is that some of the cows of this type are not suitable for machine milking. This is due to the wrong structure of the udder of the animal. Over these shortcomings work breeders. As for the bulls of this breed, the work with them is almost stopped.
The nuances of feeding and content
In the summer, animals graze on pastures, where special types of grass are grown for them: peas, clover, vetch and alfalfa. In winter, they are fed with hay made from the same herbs, but silage, vegetables and bran are added to the diet. The cattle of this breed must be carefully monitored. Especially for the diet, which is recommended to add oat-bran mixture.
The calves of the Swiss breed are especially whimsical in the first weeks after birth. They need to be constantly monitored, and the introduction of new feed to produce gradually.
Feeding newborn calves can cause difficulties due to the weak milk yield in heifers, so the feeding process must be strictly controlled.
Breed content also has its own characteristics. This is one of the few species of animals that can be kept in stalls, and walking on pastures in the warm season.
After calving, Schwyckian cows weaken greatly, and as a result, they must be carefully supervised. In their diet must include a mixture of oats and bran, which give chicks up to 10 times a day. In the first days after calving, it is recommended to milk cows 5-6 times per day.
Breed individuals of this breed in several ways. The first - group or standard breeding. The second method is the individual consolidation of a cow with a certain bull. In individual breeding, characteristics of animals are taken into account in order to obtain offspring with certain qualities.
Schwyzkie cows are one of the oldest milk and meat breeds in Russia, but it began to be popularized relatively recently, and young farm workers still have questions about animal care.
In the article we tried to collect complete information about these animals, we hope that it turned out to be useful for you. Put likes and share with friends if you have found answers to your questions with our help.
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