A special pride of Russian breeders is the Kholmogory breed of cows. This is one of the oldest representatives of cattle in our country, but to this day attempts to improve it continue. Kholmogory became the ancestors of a whole series of dairy and dairy-meat branches. Next, we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of this breed. We describe in detail the characteristics of broodstock, bulls and young. And for those who are going to buy cows, we will give a brief overview of prices.
The origin of Kholmogorov
According to historians, the first description of a purebred Kholmogory cow as a separate species is found in the XVII century. Burenka appeared on the territory of the Dvinsk district of the Arkhangelsk province (now it is the Kholmogory district of the Arkhangelsk region). Flooded meadows of the Dvina river floodplain were famous for first-class hay, and animal husbandry developed there by leaps and bounds.
After Peter I "cut through" a window to Europe, several gobies of the Dutch breed were brought to Arkhangelsk and brought them to local cows. The main task was to increase the dairy characteristics of local frost resistant cows. Already then it was known that milk production in cattle is transmitted through the male line.
At that time, the breeding experiment could be considered successful, but in 1937 they returned to the hill hills and tried to combine them with the Ostfriz breed. Then the scientists were defeated - there was more milk, but its fat content dropped dramatically.
In the late 70s of the last century luck breeders smiled. After they crossed the hills and one of the Holstein branches, the cows turned out to be good.
Breed external data
Now experts distinguish three branches of the Kholmogory breed. All of these subspecies are divided by geography:
- the central branch (distributed in the Volga region and the central regions of the country);
- the northern branch (prevails in the Arkhangelsk region and Udmurtia);
- Pechora branch (divorced in the Komi Republic).
The north of the region, the smaller the individuals and the less milk yield, but the milk is fatter there.
The cows of this breed is considered a classic black and motley color. There are red-motley and pure black individuals. Red and white cows are the exception, but they are still there.
In general, their exterior is slightly rough. Kholmogory cows have strong bones and powerful appearance. The head is small, the neck is long and thin. The line of the back is straight, the body appears slightly elongated.
A distinctive feature of Kholmogor is a wide ass with a raised sacrum and slightly curved hind legs.
Describing the appearance of these representatives of cattle, we can note the following:
- height up to 130-135 cm (depending on the subspecies of the cow);
- girth in the chest about 198 cm;
- oblique length often does not exceed 162 cm;
- high strong limbs in girth up to 20 cm;
- the chest is narrow, but deep, about 72 cm, the dewlap is practically undeveloped;
- a cup-shaped udder of medium size with symmetrical equal lobes and cylindrical nipples;
- stretchy leather is highly valued in the manufacture of footwear and accessories.
The most important characteristic of any thrush is the amount of milk it produces during the one-year lactation period. Kholmogorov average 3500 liters is considered normal. But it depends a lot on feed and geography. Cows living in the North with good nutrition can produce up to 5,000 liters, and in the center milk yield reaches 7,000 liters, the average fat content is 3.5–3.9%.
The meat characteristics of this breed are also at a fairly high level; therefore, many experts attribute this breed to the milk-meat direction. The average weight of cows is 450-500 kg. For bulls, slaughter weight is considered 800-900 kg. Breeding bulls manufacturers grow to 1200 kg. Meat yield ranges between 55% and 65%.
Compared with other thrush, the Kholmogory breed has well-developed reproductive qualities and is considered to be rather early ripening. The first calving at 30 months for the hill is normal.
The young at birth has an impressive weight. Heifers are born at an average of 33-35 kg, the weight of gobies reaches 40 kg. Near the mother on a pure milk feeding calf hold up to 3 weeks maximum. Then transferred to a separate pen for calves, where gradually the kids are taught to solid food.
If the young are well fed, by 6 months the bulls are gaining up to 200 kg and the heifers 160-180 kg. The norm for yearling gobies is a weight of 300 kg, but castrated fattening gobies can gain up to 400 kg. With a meat output of 65%, this is a pretty good indicator.
Subtleties of content
The peculiarities of the maintenance of Kholmogory cows are not much different from the care of cows of other dairy breeds. A common feature of all thrush is their dislike for walking. Kholmogorki are no exception here, but this is partly even good. After all, most of the year, cows are forced to be in a stable in a stall, and there you do not run away much.
Until late autumn cattle can be kept under open sheds. In the presence of a thick and dry bedding, cows easily tolerate interseasonal dampness and even night frosts. But in the barn there should not be even a hint of a draft. The same applies to wet bedding. Holmogorka react by decreasing milk yield and falling immunity.
Although this breed has a rather appeasable character and good-natured disposition, on summer pastures it is better to form herds of cows of about the same age. Otherwise, hierarchical disputes may begin between them, which will immediately reflect on the amount of milk produced.
Advantages and disadvantages
This breed of cows was originally formed in the harsh northern conditions, hence the relatively high adaptability to cold and uniform diet. Kholmogorsky cows feel great during a long stall period. They are able to keep the yields at a sufficiently high level, and if the food supply is good, the increase in productivity is quite real.
Compared with many commercial narrow-profile breeds, hillmogory have a longer period of economic exploitation. And indeed, these cows are long-livers.
In relation to the hills, the statement "Siberian health" fits perfectly. Strong immunity of cows is able to withstand even leukemia. Rapid postpartum recovery and well-developed reproductive function ensure stable growth and renewal of the herd.
There are only two really serious flaws in these cows. First, the Kholmogory are not intended for breeding in the southern and, especially, in the steppe areas. There is little sense from them. And secondly, the cows require a sufficient amount of food. When underfeeding the cows give little milk and start to hurt.
Briefly about prices
Now the Kholmogory breed of cows firmly holds the 4th position among the total cattle of Russia. The most famous breeding farms are in the homeland of the breed in the Arkhangelsk region. In addition to them, there are several large breeding centers in the country that offer livestock with good performance.
Udmurtia is famous for its high-quality livestock, good cows in Tatarstan and in the Volga region. In the Moscow region there are also several breeding farms. The geographical location of the economy has virtually no effect on pricing.
Milk calves for food are about 130-150 rubles. per kg live weight. A calf transferred to grass will cost 250-300 rubles per kg. The price of thrush giving birth varies around 400 rubles. per kg The most expensive are the breeding bulls with good performance. Here the price reaches 600 rubles. per kg
For the northern and central regions of Russia, the maintenance of the Kholmogorsk cow is considered to be one of the best, guaranteed proven options.
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