It is considered to be that breeds of cows of the meat direction are uncharacteristic for Russia and it is not very profitable to breed them. But over the past 20 years, this erroneous myth has been completely debunked. The huge demand for meat with a low fat content led to the fact that the share of beef cattle in our market is now approaching 25-30%. The problem of many breeders is that not every meat breed is suitable for a particular locality.
Meat cows have always been kept in Russia, but they started breeding en masse only in the 1990s. The demand came along with fashion for proper nutrition. Now all these cows are divided into three groups.
The first is scrolling. Calves here are good, and most importantly quickly, gaining weight. Most of them are not very picky about the diet. After two weeks the calf is weaned from the nipples and transferred to feed. Immunity in babies is strong enough, and they rarely get sick. The only problem is that the meat of such cows is fat. These include rocks:
- Kazakh white-headed;
The next group of cattle grows more slowly, the slaughter weight of the individual reaches approximately two years. But the meat they have an exceptional quality and low percentage of fat. These animals also treat conditions of keeping and forages loyally. Representatives of the group are often taken as a basis for breeding new breeds. This group includes cows:
The largest meat breeds of cattle are combined in the third group. These giants were bred by crossing wild zebu with domestic animals. Everything in them is good: both the weight is big and the meat is normal, but such cows can live only in a warm climate. Of the best breeds in the group, they distinguish: Santa Gertrude, Sharbrey, Brangus, Bramuzin.
Features of the direction
In the relatively recent past in the expanses of our homeland there was such a thing as bull meat breeds. In other words, the cows inside the breed were left for milk, and the bulls were purposefully raised for meat. This practice exists now, but at the moment it is already a separate meat and dairy direction. Although there is not much difference between meat bulls and meat and dairy bulls, the most vivid example is the Simmental branch, there is decent milk yield and a large breed of bulls.
Meat cattle has its own distinctive features. In general, they are significantly more milkmen. Growth of adult individuals is rarely less than 130 cm. Calves are born different, but for the most part large 35-40 kg. They quickly gain weight. The growth of a meat calf per day is from 500 g, and after a year they can be sent for meat.
The texture of such cattle is stately, musculature, as a rule, powerful and pronounced. Both on top and on the side, the body of an animal resembles a regular rectangle. The skin is thick and rather rough. But the udder is poorly developed, they certainly give milk, but not much.
In our country, the Hereford breed has been cultivated for over 100 years. Initially, these cows are home to England. By a long selection work, they were able not only to get acclimatized well in Russia, but also not to lose their meat characteristics. To this day, the Herefords are used as the main material for breeding new branches of beef and dairy cattle.
The geography of distribution is one of the widest. These cows can be found from Kuban to Siberia and the Far East. Animals are unpretentious in feed and normally gain weight when stall. A calf is born with a weight of 35-37 kg, but it can daily gain up to one and a half kg.
The body is knocked down, strong, partly resembles a barrel. The hair coat is mostly red, but the head is white. White plume stretches from the head through the belly to the tail. The quality of meat is good, but there is fatty tissue. Cows give birth easily and mortality in calves is low. The only negative is low milkiness. During the year milk yield hardly reaches 1200 liters, so the calves have to be artificially fed.
Where this breed was bred is clear from the name. The Mongolian steppe animals, which were introduced about 350 years ago, are considered the progenitors of this branch. Kalmyk cows received by crossing Mongolian cows with local. Now they are bred from the Volga region and the Caucasus to Eastern Siberia.
In color red predominates with white muzzles. Sometimes there are red individuals. Horn round shape. The average height of animals is 130 cm. Weight varies depending on geography and range of feed. The warmer the region, the more the herd is on free grazing and the better it gains weight. In cows, it fluctuates around 400-550 kg, in bulls, 600-1100 kg. The profitability of meat reaches 60%.
The breed has a good ability to reproduce quickly, giving birth to cows is mostly easy. Calves are small - up to 25 kg, the average daily weight gain of calves is 800 g. There are two subspecies inside the Kalmyk direction. Representatives of the first grow rapidly and give a greater yield of meat, but they are lighter and smaller. The latter grow longer, but the individuals are larger there.
This is one of the first obvious successes of the Soviet breeding school. The breed was bred by crossing Kalmyk cows with Hereford and local cows. In addition to Kazakhstan, these cows are raised for meat in the middle and lower Volga region. Also there is a large livestock in Belarus and Ukraine.
The animals are squat, but very powerful, the growth is small - about 130 cm. The head is large, the chest is wide, in the cold season it can overgrow with curly hair. Color similar to Hereford - red color with a white head and belly. In cows, the average weight is up to 550 kg, in bulls with normal feeding it reaches a ton.
Breed refers to the early maturity. Calves recruit per day up to 1600 g. With good fattening, the meat profitability of bulls comes to 65%, on average, Kazakh white-headed animals give 55% of meat as output. In food, cows are unpretentious, quickly acclimatize in a new place and have good immunity.
Now Aberdeen Angus cows are bred for meat in Russia, Europe, the USA and Australia, but they were bred in Scotland. The main reason for the high popularity is the unique marble beef. In our country, in terms of the number of heads, Aberdines are second only to the Hereford breed. The geography is vast - from Kuban to Krasnoyarsk and Altai Krai.
To confuse the Aberdeen with someone else is difficult - the cows are either red or black, but only of the same color. They have no horns at all, but the breed boasts powerful, well-developed muscles. These are real giants, they grow up to one and a half meters. The maximum mass for cows is 700 kg, for bulls - 1000 kg. The yield of meat reaches 70%, while the bone skeleton is only 17%.
Calves are small - up to 25 kg, but gaining 800 g per day. Aberdines are similar in milk to the Herford (up to 1,200 liters per year), so the calves need additional feeding. But if you start this breed for marble meat, you will have to spend a lot of money on food. In addition to grass, you need to give more grain, legumes and animal feed.
This breed is the pride of Russian scientists, it was officially registered only in 2007. But, despite such a young age, now livestock has more than 8,000 heads. They took it to the tribal farms of the Volgograd region by crossing the Aberdeen-Angussus with the Kalmyk branch.
The monochrome animals, mostly black, are distinguished by their height and serious mass. Cows weigh up to 800 kg, bulls grow to 1250 kg. Calves weigh about 40 kg at birth, but they are capable of gaining up to 1250 a day. Russian Komoli has almost the largest meat yield, up to 80%.
Now about half of the new breeding herd of Russian Komola sent for export. After all, in addition to high profitability, this breed has excellent marble meat with characteristics close to dietary.
The cow is calm, not picky in feed and resistant to many diseases. But the Russian Komoly doesn't like cold weather, the European and sharply continental climate is closer to it.
This breed is designed for year-round grazing, however, we breed it in some regions of Siberia. The total number of Galloveans in Russia does not exceed 0.8%. They are hardy and unpretentious in feed, quickly adapt to the climate and adapt to new conditions. The constitution of cows is similar to the Aberdeen-Angus branch.
The color is mostly motley, black and white and all shades of red and white. The pelt is rough and thick. A distinctive feature of the breed is a rather thick coat with a dense undercoat, the hair length reaches 20 cm.
For meat breed, these cows are considered light. Females grow to 500 kg, while bulls do not exceed 850 kg. But they are valued for a decent yield of meat (58-62%), and most importantly - for its unique characteristics. Juveniles at birth are small - up to 27 kg, but calves grow quickly. They can gain 1100 g per day. By the age of a year and a half, the mass of these gobies of meat breed is 430 kg.
Comparison of average data
Naturally, the most basic characteristic for this direction is weight. But to choose beef breeds of cows only for the maximum weight would be wrong. No less important is the profitability of meat, that is, how many percent of the total weight of the carcass is the pulp. The table presents the average data on the most famous and popular meat breeds.
There are several dozens of beef breeds of cows in the world, but we chose record holders suitable for breeding in Russia.
We hope the information was useful to you. Perhaps one of your friends on social networks is also looking for beef cows and your likes will help him solve the problem.
Share your thoughts in the comments below.