The motley Simmental cow is very popular among Russian breeders. It appeared on Russian open spaces two centuries ago, when several Swiss gobies were brought to households to improve the breed. These animals have a lot of virtues that made them very popular all over the world. Simmentals are diluted to obtain milk, meat, leather raw materials. They are crossed with local cattle species, increasing the productivity of traditional livestock.
History of origin and development of the population
Switzerland is famous not only for its knives, cans and cheeses, but also for its high-quality beef. The centuries-long selection on mountain alpine grasses allowed the Swiss to withdraw from the descendants of wild tours and Scandinavian cows a special breed of cattle, which is distinguished by high milk and meat productivity at the same time. The Simma River Valley, otherwise known as Bern, became the birthplace of the Simmental (or Bernese) breed.
In Switzerland itself, such animals account for more than half of the total population. In neighboring Austria, cattle are 80% Simmental.
Their high productivity becomes a pretext for breeding new breeds of cattle: simmentals crossed with brahmins are called - simbra (USA), with zebu - simbrasil (Brazil), with English bulls - symbi fi
What does a purebred animal look like
Ancient historical roots still imprint the appearance of the Simmental breed. These are very large animals with wide bones and well-developed musculature. At the withers the cow reaches one and a half meters, in length - 160 cm. The croup is wide, the neck is short and muscular. Bulls withers sometimes forked. From the long-standing ancestors, a coarse, large, forehead was preserved.
A sign of pure breed are light eyelids and a pink nose. The tips of the well-developed yellow horns usually have a brownish tint and are curved forward. Simmentals are characterized by pale-mottled skin and white head, thick hair on withers and abdomen. The skin is thick, heavy and elastic. A high tail with a large tassel is so long that you have to either tie up or trim it.
Simmental calves are born large - from 36 to 45 kg. They grow well and quickly gain weight with a different approach to feeding. For six months, the calf can add up to 200 kg, that is, will increase its weight fourfold.
By the year a young goby-simmental will weigh more than 400 kg. Daily weight gain with quality care gives about one kg.
In the Voronezh region, a bull named Heir 2 was recorded with 1.5 kg of weight gain per day.
The weight of symentals (spelling with one letter "m", that is, "simentik" is wrong) is usually 560-600 kg, but with good feeding can reach tons. The weight of bulls easily reaches 850-1000 kg. The largest representatives reach 1300 kg.
Slaughter weight in bulls is 65%, in cows - a little more than half of the total mass. The meat is high quality, without coarse fibers, with a fat content of 12-17%.
What distinguishes the reproduction of young
It is good if the first calving of Simmental cows occurs in the third year of life. Earlier deliveries are undesirable for maintaining the health of a heifer. The interval between calving is 390-400 days.
Features of the structure of croup and well-developed genital organs in animals of this breed are the key to safe reproduction of the offspring. The Simmental cow, as a rule, can easily cope with childbirth.
The calf is born not only large, but also strong: almost immediately it rises on its legs. Increased maternal instinct in cows of this breed contributes to a high percentage of survival of babies, and nutritious milk helps to grow healthy young.
Also characterized by a high percentage of pregnancy - more than 90% for heifers (first-inseminated heifers) and cows. Simmentalki often bring twins.
Dairy performance records
Simmental cows give good milk yield. 3000-4000 liters of milk per lactation is a common indicator for them. With proper care, you can increase this figure to 5000 liters. Record holder give up to 15 000 l for the lactation period. A Hungarian Simmental named Lady brought up to 70 kg of milk per day.
Maximum milk yield is obtained after the fifth or sixth calving. The average fat content of milk, as a rule, exceeds 4%. After the ninth calving, it is the greatest. Recorded figures of 7,000 liters in fat content of more than 6%. Symentational milk has a high content of protein and a low content of cells of organs and tissues.
Cows are milked 2-4 times a day. They tolerate this procedure calmly and easily. All representatives of the breed are distinguished by appeasability and intelligibility.
Conditions for the maintenance and care of animals
Simmentals are strong and hardy. In the summer, the herd can be kept outdoors by limiting to a rain canopy. In the cold season, they can share a warm, ventilated room with other livestock.
Care must be taken to ensure that animals that are infected with fleas and lice, such as dogs or cats, do not enter the pen. In winter, it is worth occasionally bringing a cow to the street light for a thorough examination.
The floors in the barn must be moisture resistant. The litter should be changed twice a day. Cows are brushed daily and washed away with warm water. Before the spring season, wash with regular shampoo.
To feed the animals can only water at room temperature.
It is important to follow the regime and feeding ration in order to preserve the signs of the breed.
How to feed to get the most out
Simmental breed of cows is distinguished by unpretentiousness and resistance to diseases. Animals can easily adapt to a variety of climatic conditions and forms of content. However, in order to obtain high rates, they should be well fed a lot throughout the year.
The daily menu of the simmental can be approximately as follows:
- a mixture of boiled corn with water, as well as corn leaves;
- 1-2 bales of hay (from 8 to 10 kg);
- 2-3 kg of feed;
- succulent feed;
Wheat or oats as feeds are not welcome. Before use, such a grain should be sifted and boiled so that the cows do not hurt the stomach with the spiky parts of the ears.
In the summer, field grasses are included in the diet of Simmental cows.
To avoid overfeeding, food distribution is limited to two or three a day.
What problems may arise when breeding
When breeding Simmentals should take into account a number of negative points. From the characteristics of the breed it follows that for its profitability will require a lot of feed. With a high meat productivity, a large percentage of bones in the overall yield can be attributed to the disadvantages.
Another feature of Simmental is the irregular shape of the hind legs. The defect lies in the large angle between the ankle and tarsus, the so-called "elephant foot". This prevents animals from moving quickly. Over time, the massive torso sags in the lumbar region.
Asymmetric development of the udder can cause problems. It also happens that a thick coat of wool on the abdomen of a cow extends to the udder, which is also a minus.
Why is it worth breeding these animals
The Simmental cow breed has gained recognition and widespread distribution in Russian farms. Animals are valued for double meat and dairy, each of which has good performance.
In addition to rapid growth and high yields, the breed has many other positive qualities:
- these animals rarely get sick due to good development and great mobility;
- Simmentalki are genetically resistant to mastitis, which is a serious problem for dairy cows;
- good health of the cows allows you to get good milk yield for a long time - up to 15 years;
- produces high quality milk with high protein content, which is excellent for the production of cheese;
- calves are unpretentious in care and feeding;
- high milk production allows to save food when feeding calves;
- their genes dominate when crossed, passing on signs of the breed.
The combination of all these advantages made the Simmental cow breed one of the most beloved among Russian livestock breeders. Buy Simmentals can be in a large complex or on a private farm. The cost of animals is high, especially if it is a breeding goby. For one kg of weight, sellers ask for 135-165 rubles. The high cost of the purchase is quite understandable and, as follows from the description of the breed and its breeding experience, it pays off well. To be sure of the purebredness of the animal, you should ask for certificates for a cow or a bull.
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