It so happened that in our country dairy cows were always more valued. The solution to this phenomenon is simple - dairy cattle is considered the most calm, and most importantly adapted for stalling. Meat and part of meat and dairy breeds require compulsory exercise on the street, and in most parts of the Russian Federation, the cold is between 6 and 9 months. So it turns out that it is more profitable to breed cows in Russia.
For an amateur, all animals are the same, but if you look closely, the breeds of dairy cows are noticeably different from meat and meat and dairy sisters. Here you will not find giants with tremendous weight, but you will not name miniature dairy cows either. The best breeds are similar, the main set of parameters is approximately as follows:
- torso of burenok slightly elongated;
- legs are medium or high, but usually thin;
- a mobile and rather long neck, sometimes with folds;
- muscles are not particularly prominent and poorly developed;
- the back is often flat;
- belly medium or large;
- the most milky breeds have a well-developed cup-shaped udder with distinct and large veins;
- a strong heart, good lungs and a powerful digestive system, because in one day a thrush eats up to 100 kg of feed.
The character of cows and dairy bulls is quite friendly. Animals are calm and unhurried. Cows do not like them to chase a lot of pastures. Usually they find one place and they eat grass all day long. We now turn to specific breeds. Then you will get acquainted with dairy cattle breeds and get some tips on choosing.
This group includes high-breeds of cows who do not like heat. They show the best productivity in the central part of the Russian Federation, as well as in Siberia and the Urals. In the southern areas, even with a good diet, you should not expect large yields. Plus, the heat in animals decreases immunity, and they begin to hurt.
With a normal content, Ayshra residents on average produce about 7,000 liters of milk per year. The quality of milk is excellent, with fat content of 4-4.2%, the content of lactose and other useful ingredients is above average. The product is valued among cheese makers and in the manufacture of dairy delicacies.
Cows are unpretentious in keeping and quickly acclimatize in a new place. Sexual maturity in heifers comes in one and a half years. Calves at birth are small - up to 25 kg. High cows can hold up to 12 years. Color predominantly brown with contrasting white spots. Steers with an annual fattening weigh about 300 kg.
Black motley breed
Classic black and white burenka from commercials. The body is powerful, the cow is beautiful, proportionally folded. The head is large, the muzzle is slightly elongated and set on a long, elegant neck with folds. The volumetric belly is not very conspicuous because of its height, up to 135 cm. The weight of cows reaches 650 kg, the breeding bulls weigh about a ton.
Black motley breed has three subspecies. Figuratively speaking, the farther from the center, the smaller the cows. In the central part of the country a subspecies is bred, which is closer to the meat and dairy direction. In the Urals, the cows are all the same tall, but lean, musculature is not so clearly traced. Siberian cows are small, with short legs and strong.
Black mottled cows produce up to 6.5 thousand liters of milk per year. The average fat content of 3.7%. Performance is related to geographic location. In the center, the milk yield is higher and the fat content of the product is lower. Closer to Siberia milk yield falls, but fat content is growing. Besides milk, this breed is famous for its lean meat.
Holstein are considered a European breed, and they came to us in the XIX century. But the basis of the current livestock are cows bred in America. Color black and white. Among the representatives of the dairy direction they can be called gigantic. Growth of adults reaches 145 cm, and calves are born with a weight of 40-45 kg. One-year-old bull is quite realistic to fatten up to 400 kg.
By themselves, the cows are clean and do not tolerate dirt in the barn. Their immunity is strong, but it strongly depends on a balanced diet. By the way, in food, the Holsteers are very picky and the yield on monotonous feeds falls. In total, a cow gives up to 10,000 liters of milk per year, but the fat content is relatively low - 3.6%.
With good keeping, bulls gain more than a ton of weight, the cows weigh up to 700 kg. The body is wedge-shaped, with a wide, well-defined loin. The udder has a cup shape with large veins.
Basically it is bred in the center of Russia. In the herd, cows are distinguished by black color with a white head, whitish belly and the tip of the tail. Average animal weight is up to 500 kg. Bulls grow to 800 kg. The cow has a rather large belly with a volume udder. Nipples on the udder have a characteristic location only for this breed and are set apart.
Yaroslavl cows, even with a very dense diet, do not grow fat. The chest is narrow and deep, the back has a slight deflection. Milks on average fluctuate around the figure of 7,000 liters per year. The fat content of the product is high, sometimes up to 4.5%. Cows quickly take root in a new place and easily tolerate transportation.
This species has a fairly high resistance to leukemia and strong immunity. Not many cows eat, but at the same time, milk yield remains high. Large claims to the conditions of detention do not impose. Veterinarians love Yaroslavl cows for lungs without complications and childbirth pathologies.
Despite the name, the breed is considered more Russian than European. Large cows can grow up to 700 kg, bulls gain an average of 1000-1200 kg. The animal is well built and has the right proportions. The back is straight, the belly is medium in size. The height of the tallest individuals reaches 132 cm. The colors are mostly classic black and white.
The gestation is given early, the average age of insemination in heifers is one and a half years, but there are cases when the heifer reaches sexual maturity as early as 14 months. Young animals at birth are large, about 42 kg, a daily increase in weight of 500 g. According to dairy indicators, Dutch cows occupy a solid middle, milk yields about 6000 l. The highest fat content is 4.2%.
But in order for the Dutch to give a lot of quality milk, they need a variety of feed in sufficient quantities. This cattle is very picky about food and any changes in the diet can instantly affect milk yield. Breed prevails in the center of the Russian Federation, as well as in the Far East and in some regions of Siberia.
In appearance, the Kholmogory breed is somewhat reminiscent of the Dutch. But these cows are much less demanding on feeds and conditions of detention. Cows are strong and well built. The head is not very big, the muzzle is slightly extended. The udder is also small, it is distinguished by two clearly traced, proportional lobes.
The main color of the breed is black and white, although often pure black individuals are also found. There are red and red mottled hills, but quite rarely. This breed loves walks in wide pastures, which in general is not typical for thrush.
In the general indicators of milkiness, the hills are placed; they give up to 6000 liters of milk with fat content of 3.7%. But to grow a record holder from this breed is difficult. But heifers quickly mature and are able to give birth often.
These cows are highly valued for their high adaptability to harsh conditions; now their population has grown up to Yakutia. They are one of the few who feel well even in Kolyma.
Differs uncharacteristic appearance for thrush. The cows are small, their height rarely reaches 120 cm. The color is red with dark tan. The legs are short, but animals are considered very hardy. The maximum weight of heifers is 450 kg, bulls grow to 700 kg.
Compared with other breeds of thrush, Jersey have a small head and a relatively small udder. However, these cows are capable of producing up to 4500 liters of first-class milk. This breed is valued for high fat content of the product, even with poor feed, it is at least 5%.
Jersey rarely suffer from mastitis, they are resistant to gynecological diseases. They do not need a lot of feed, plus they do not lose milk and do not suffer from the quality of milk with monotonous feed. Another breed is different in that even large herds do not trample pastures.
Red steppe breed
This thrush was derived especially for the steppe arid regions. Cows feel fine in the midday sun. Distributed in almost all steppe regions of the Russian Federation, but the largest population is concentrated in Ukraine. Breed known for 200 years. In the second half of the 20th century, it was "modernized", crossing with the imperial and Danish branches.
For the steppe regions with a dry monotonous ration, the productivity of cows is quite decent, they give up to 4,500 liters of milk per year, the average fat content is 3.9%. But the level of proteins in milk varies around 3.5%. The udder is large enough, but the proportions are developed disproportionately.
The average weight of cows is 500 kg, bulls grow up to 900 kg. Calves are born weighing up to 40 kg, gain weight well and by the year can grow up to 350 kg. Although in feed, animals are not picky, but if they are not supplemented, they start to get sick and noticeably lose in milk yield.
Tips for choosing
Many believe that choosing dairy cattle, in the first place, you need to look at productivity, that is, the amount of milk produced by the mother. But this is not entirely true. The fact is that calves inherit a penchant for high yields from their father. Therefore, if a high-yielding cow gave birth to a healthy chick, this does not mean that her virtues were transferred to the baby.
When buying young calves, you need to look at the documents, specifically on who her father is, and whether dairy cows were born from this bull.
Before you choose a ready-to-be-fed cow, it is worth a while to talk to the owner about the diet of the feed. Then you need to weigh how realistic it is for you to provide this menu. You can choose the most milky breed of cows, but if, in addition to changing the premises and the servants, you still have to radically change the type of food for the animal, then the yield will fall by about half.
Those owners who are going to breed a herd of dairy cows should do otherwise. Here you need to look for the cow, which gives the most milk, and buy a bull from her. This bull will become the ancestor of your breeding, high-milk herd.
Naturally, the main characteristic for any thrush is the amount of milk it can give, as well as its fat content. But there is a nuance, the best dairy breeds of cows set their records in a particular place. Not the fact that in another place and with other feeds the same breed will have a similar productivity.
That is why experts do not recommend ordering thoroughbred young at the other end of our vast country or abroad. And in order to make it easier for you to decide on what breeds and how much milk is produced, we have compiled a small table:
Dairy performance in cows is important both on large farms and for small breeders.
Perhaps this information will be useful to your friends, and one of your likes will help someone choose a good thrush.
Tell us in the comments what breed you prefer and why.