Now in the world there is a mandatory classification of cattle breeds. The only exceptions are countries where, due to the harsh climate, cows cannot live. Science does not know when a person tamed cows and what kind of cows they were. But the breeding of purebred animals, depending on the indicators of productivity, the first engaged the ancient Romans. And although to this day scientists breed new breeds, the main herd is based on proven breeding animals, and we'll talk about them later.
At the moment there are many classes of cattle. The most famous gradation is the division by productivity, that is, beef, dairy, and hybrid cattle with mixed traits. In addition, there is a division by place of residence, mountain, lowland and desert animals.
Now in the scientific world it is considered that the principle of domestication of cows is fundamental. Here the division goes to primitive cattle, factory breeds and transitional variants.
The primitive class includes cows intact civilization. Simply put, semi-wild animals that evolved through natural selection.
Factory class is elite breeds. As a rule, breeding work with them has already been completed, all that scientists wanted, they have achieved. By the way, we will talk about the best representatives of this class below.
Transition branches are a cross between factory and primitive, they are in the process of active improvement.
It is wrong to buy calves that look good and wait for large yields or huge weight from cows grown from them. Indeed, for cattle, climate and the assortment of fodder play a fundamental role. Thus, cattle breeds bred in warm countries may not accept the Russian climate. And as you do not care for them, the expected results will not be.
There is no concept of a good breed of cattle and bad, there are specific cows, the breed of which is bred for specific conditions and with a specific purpose. And there are animals that these conditions do not accept.
Around the world, several hundred breeds of cattle are now officially registered. Our country from such a diversity got only about seventy branches. This is due to the long Russian winter and relatively short summer.
But on the other hand, our breeders can boast some of the best breeds of cows in the dairy and meat-dairy areas. Pure meat cows and gobies grow poorly in our country. Since we do not have fresh grass all year round, they are expensive. And now let's go through the world elite of all breeds of cows.
Holstein cows preserved the purity of the species
Holshtin residents are deservedly considered almost champions among thrush. Bred such a breed of cows in the Netherlands. In the 19th century, Holstein calves were brought to America, where they became the base for breeding dairy livestock.
According to official sources, Holstein cows did not interbreed with either local American Burenka or imported aliens. All indicators of this type are obtained solely by intratribal selection.
The Holsteins are dominated by black and motley colors. Cows have a rather large udder. Bulls in weight can compete with the best representatives of the meat direction. Exact numbers:
- cow weight - 700-750 kg;
- the weight of bulls - 1000-1200 kg;
- weight of the born calf - 40-45 kg;
- milk productivity - from 5 to 15 000 l;
- maximum growth in cows - 140 cm;
- bulls can reach - 145 cm;
Among the Holsteiners there are two directions. Some cows are focused on higher yields, while others give less milk, but this milk comes with a high fat ratio.
Simmentalki come from Switzerland. According to legend, the Simmental breed of cows was bred by converting local cows and Scandinavian gobies around the 5th century. Livestock focused on meat and dairy direction.
Simmental cattle is fast acclimatized. Thanks to this useful quality, it is displayed throughout the world. Survival and immunity in calves differ in a good way. Simmental cows became the basis for breeding part of the Russian branches.
Coloring - fawn, has motley inclusions. The head of white color is planted on a short, but powerful neck. Gobies quickly gain weight and by the age of one and a half they can weigh up to a semitone.
It is no secret that there are breeds of bulls focused on bullfights and other fun, so here are Simmentals of them. The main indicators are as follows:
- cow weight up to 650 kg;
- bulls gain up to 1200 kg;
- annual productivity level - up to 3500 l;
- fat content - up to 4%;
- cows grow up to 140 cm;
- bulls grow to 145 cm.
Black and motley conquered the whole of Russia
The most famous of all breeds of cows in the expanses of the former Soviet Union is considered to be black-and-white, the dairy direction. Color is clear from the name, but sometimes there are red-motley individuals. These cows received official registration in 1959.
The Holsteers were taken as a basis and crossed with the local population. Then the task was to get cattle that can live throughout the USSR, and without loss of productivity.
Scientists have completely coped with this task, and the cows of this breed are feeling fine not only in the European territory of the country, but also in the vast Urals, in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, in the Caucasus and other republics of the former USSR.
Cows weigh up to 600 kg, the mass of bulls reaches 1050 kg. The weight of calves born - up to 40 kg. By 18 months, bulls are gaining up to 500 kg. Udoy depends on the geography of residence - 3000-16 000 liters per year.
Red steppe Burenka withstands southern heat
In contrast to the black-and-white, the red steppe is improved to this day. The endless steppes of the southern republics demanded the withdrawal of a special species of animals that could easily withstand the heat and be content with dry grass.
As a result, the red steppe cow is not particularly worried about the heat, and in food it is unpretentious. But the level of productivity in extreme conditions leaves much to be desired.
Here there are all signs of the dairy direction. Cows are thin with thin bones, but the udder is often bulky. Long and thin neck. The sternum and the back part are not well developed, the derex is small, but there is a voluminous belly. Among the thrush black-motley and red steppe breeds of cows in Russia are leading.
But the second showed a bit more modest:
- annual productivity - up to 5500 l;
- fat content - up to 4.1%;
- cow weight - up to 550 kg;
- bull weight - up to 900 kg;
- weight of calves born - up to 35 kg;
Ayshir people with lyres on their heads
The homeland of the Ishir residents is the county called Ayr, which is located in Scotland. There are traces of Dutch, Alderney and Flemish relatives in the blood of the Ayshir cows. This mix allows animals to withstand a rather harsh climate and at the same time not to lose in productivity.
The cows have a red-motley color and a pronounced milky body. An elongated muzzle with a lyre-shaped horns is a kind of hallmark of Ayshir cows. The chest and backside are poorly developed, the middle part of the body is large, the udder looks like a bowl, the nipples are set apart.
Cows are complex, they can be fearful, but they are often not reflected in milk yield. In the central part of Russia and in the Urals, the Ayshirs show good results. And in the steppe zone and hot areas, the assessment of productivity is rather low. Milk yield reaches 7000 l, milk fat content - up to 4.3%. Heifers can be fertilized after 18 months. A born calf weighs up to 30 kg. The weight of a cow is up to 570 kg, the mass of a bull is up to 800 kg.
Jersey breed saves pasture
Homeland of these animals is the British island of Jersey. How many years the breed is unknown, but on the mainland, these cows appeared in the middle of the XIX century. The special pride of the Jersey is that they do not trample pastures.
Cows exclusively milk direction. Individuals are small, the maximum growth of cows barely reaches 120 cm. The color is red, with rare exceptions - dark. On a back from a head to a tail the dark strip can pass. White spots are present only on the legs and abdomen.
Dzhersiytsev mainly bred in their homeland in Britain, they still exist in the United States and some European countries. As for our country, these cows tolerate the climate quite normally and show good results in terms of productivity. But they are bred only in a few farms near Moscow.
The average annual output is 4,000-6,000 liters. Milk fat in champions reaches 8%, while the standard figure is 4-6%. The mass of a cow is up to 400 kg, the weight of bulls is up to 750 kg. Calves are small born with a weight of up to 22 kg.
Schwyz cows appeared in our country in the 19th century. The homeland of these cows is Switzerland, but they are spread all over the world. The breed was bred as a combination, as a result, three directions appeared inside the species. The first type - with a bias for meat, the second - for milk and the third - purely milky appearance.
Schwicz are distinguished by a large, stocky build, which is especially noticeable in the meat and dairy branch. And dairy and dairy-meat dairy cows have a rather large udder. Color in different branches varies from gray to brown. The hooves and tips of the horns are black. On the back can be traced white line.
The Russian version of Schwyz is characterized by good performance and precocious heifers. But most of all, this breed is valued for its high immunity and resistance to many dangerous diseases. The weight of a cow is up to 600 kg, bulls grow up to 950 kg. Milk capacity per year - 3500-4000 l, fat content up to 3.7%. Calves are born weighing up to 40 kg. The level of meat productivity - 50-60%.
Kholmogory thrush with appeasable character
It is believed that these cows were bred in the Arkhangelsk province, in Kholmogorsky district in the XVII century. Cows belong to the dairy direction, although the indicators for meat they are also pretty good.
Cows of medium height (up to 132 cm) and a rather large constitution. Kholmogorky has a narrow and not very deep chest, but a rather powerful butt, the sacrum slightly raised. A distinctive feature is the unevenly developed shares of the udder, its size is average. The skin is thick, partly even rough.
In appearance, the cows seem angular, the character is friendly, calm. The feed is not picky, with normal content of winter milk yield is not very different from the summer. There is no clear color of the hill hills, here you can also find black-and-white and red-and-white and even purely black individuals.
Annual production capacity is up to 4000 l of milk per year, fat content is up to 3.8%. Cows weigh up to 500 kg, mass of bulls up to 1200 kg. The yield of meat - 53%.
Yaroslavl beauty black suit
Burenas have their descent from the middle of the XIX century. Unlike Kholmogorsky, the Yaroslavl direction can be immediately distinguished by suit. The cows are mostly black with a white muzzle, legs and belly. True, through the efforts of modern breeders, there are already black-and-white and black Yaroslavl, but there are not so many of them, so they are not taken into account.
Cows have a very friendly disposition, become attached to their owners and respond well to caring attitude. In food unpretentious, quickly get used to new conditions and climate change. Breed is focused on the dairy direction.
Efficiency per year - up to 5000 liters, the average fat content - 4%. The weight of cows is up to 500 kg, the mass of bulls is up to 700 kg;
Characteristics of the dairy direction
The peculiarity of thrush is that even on dry and combined feed with a stall content, they do not give less than 3000 l for a lactation period of 305 days.
Naturally, the longer a cow will graze in meadows with lush grass, the higher her yield will be. Some champions brought the figures to 25,000-27,000 liters per year. The table below describes the average of some dairy breeds.
It is not necessary that the animal be huge in the meat direction. The evaluation criteria are complex here and specialists look not so much at the total weight, as at the meat productivity and quality of the beef. We began to breed beef cows recently, and they are based mainly in the southern regions. The basic data is presented below:
All breeds of animals are good, but when choosing, it is better to focus primarily on the geography of breeding, and then on the target, that is, you need a cow more for milk or for meat.
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