In dairy farms and in farms that breed livestock, the treatment and prevention of gynecological diseases in cows is a top priority. In addition to genetic abnormalities and viral diseases, problems with gynecology can arise as a result of beriberi, improperly taken or difficult labor, staff negligence and even simple drafts. Next, we will discuss how to identify gynecological diseases of the cow in time, how they are dangerous and how they are treated.
Causes of disease
The vast majority of gynecological diseases in cows occur either during conception, or during childbirth and the postpartum period. So 2 weeks after birth, atonic dysfunction of the uterus in a cow is observed in 90% of cases. But with good care and a normal diet in a couple of months, this figure drops to 7-10%.
In the postpartum period, various kinds of fungi and other pathogenic microflora penetrate through the udder, and most of all through the vagina of cows. Here only regular washing and disinfecting of the genital organs of animals with antiseptic solutions saves.
Ovarian hypofunction (decreased hormonal activity) in young heifers is usually caused by poor nutrition and colds. Cold floor, humid environment and constant drafts - a direct path to infertility. In adult cows, illiterate artificial insemination, under-treated metritis and vaginal prolapse can lead to hormonal problems.
Signs of disease
Vaginal prolapse is closer to birth injuries than diseases. After all, the pathogenesis of this phenomenon lies in difficult childbirth or gross mistakes of the obstetrician during the delivery of childbirth. By itself, such a disease will not pass, but it is not worthwhile to self-heal the organ that fell out. Only an experienced, practicing veterinarian can cope with the disease.
This pathology can have 2 forms - complete and incomplete. They manifest themselves in different ways, but both of these forms are equally dangerous for animals. The full form is characterized by a noticeable protrusion of the wall. The case can reach the point that the wall literally falls out of the genital slit in the form of a bubble or a ball. In some cases, even the cervix is visible.
The incomplete form of the disease is less noticeable and more dangerous. You can see it only when the cow is lying. In this position, a small fold protrudes from the vagina. It is necessary for the animal to rise and this fold is set in a natural way.
Treatment of prolapse
The genitalia is a very sensitive place, and the treatment can be painful, so before repositioning the fallout, you need to make a novocaine blockade and give the cow a sedative.
Incomplete and full forms are treated in about the same way:
- before the procedure, the cow must be fixed on the machine;
- wash the organ with soap and water;
- disinfect the bulging part with potassium permanganate or another means;
- to make the fold easier to apply, apply ointment with a disinfecting effect;
- squeeze the crease or bump into by hand.
When fully shaped, the cone is wrapped with a tannin-soaked towel before pressing. If tannin was not at hand, then alum will do.
But the adjusted body needs to be fixed, otherwise it will fall out again. To do this, a special bandage is applied to the vagina, some use a loop. But experienced veterinarians prefer to fix the vagina with a special suture, which is removed after 10 - 12 days. As long as the vagina is fixed it needs to be washed daily and disinfected.
Premature, early contractions almost always cause gynecological diseases of cows. In the firstborn heifers, too early contractions may indicate internal pathology. Sometimes this happens as a result of poor care and rude attitude on the part of the staff. In a young chick bout can start even from fright.
If a cow gives birth not for the first time and she started having premature contractions, then you first need to check whether the fetus has stopped. In this case, the time of the abortion will help get along with "little blood". The cow after the recovery course will be able to give birth yet. If time is missed, then a cow may develop purulent endometritis, and in severe cases the animal dies.
If the calf is alive in the womb, then it is advisable to calm the animal so that unplanned contractions stop. In the barn, they usually muffle the light and place a dry and soft bedding. As a stopping agent, epidural anesthesia is practiced (a kind of local anesthesia in which the drug is injected in the spinal region). The best prevention will be good food and regular, but short walks.
According to the rules, the afterbirth should be released within 8 hours after delivery. During this time, the cow performed conservative procedures. To cause contraction, the uterus needs to be stimulated. Of the medications, oxytocin is used together with synestrol. Muscle tone raises glucose well. And from the pathogenic pathogenic microflora protects the solution of calcium chloride.
If the afterbirth did not come out naturally, then it is removed not later than in 2 days manually. This procedure must be followed by the strictest hygiene. But disinfectants to enter into the uterus is prohibited. Reducing medicines are the same - synestrol with oxytocin.
Now intrauterine injection of foaming tablets and antibiotics are actively practicing. The exudate must be cleaned in time, and the genital organs outside should be treated with an aerosol antiseptic. After a delay or artificial extraction of the afterbirth, in most cases metritis occurs. And if you do not recognize it in time, then everything will end in sterility.
Forms and types of metritis
As practice shows, in most cases atony of the uterus, or, more simply, complete loss of the ability of the uterus to contract, results precisely from different types and forms of metritis. There are 3 most common types of disease.
- Endometritis refers to inflammation of the uppermost mucous layer of the uterus;
- When the disease affects the muscles of the uterus, it is already myometritis;
- The most severe type is perimetric, in this case the disease is already progressing in the abdominal cavity.
There are latent or subclinical, acute catarrhal, purulent-catarrhal and chronic forms of metritis. The most dangerous are considered hidden and chronic, because they can not manifest themselves.
As the disease progresses, it is easier to fight. If the disease does not manifest itself, then you can already notice it when it came to infertility, prolapse of the uterus or sepsis. In order to detect the disease in time, all cows for 10-12 days after birth give an analysis for the presence of metritis pathogens.
Now, ovarian hypofunction in a cow is considered to be a negligent host disease. After all, the main causes of this disease are poor conditions of detention.
This includes not enough varied diet, saving on feed (under-feeding). Dampness, drafts, low temperature in the room, lack of normal walking. As well as over-exploitation and heavy loads on working cows.
The first sign of cow hypofunction is a decrease in sexual activity. Traced violation of the monthly cycle. The cows disappear hunting, they are not excited.
Rectal examination shows low rigidity in the uterus, sometimes it is not possible to catch it at all. There is a slight decrease in the ovaries in cows. Sudden weight loss can be a particular manifestation of hypofunction, or vice versa a cow can quickly gain weight.
But do not make the tragedy of this disease. It has been repeatedly proven that, if the causes are eliminated, it retreats completely within a couple of months.
Long-term observations and studies of specialists have shown that gynecological diseases, including vaginal prolapse in cows, are directly dependent on the progress of childbirth. There is a conditional division into normal childbirth, childbirth with complications and pathological childbirth.
Normal childbirth is easy, there may not even need the participation of a veterinarian. The time of departure of the placenta does not exceed 8 hours. During childbirth with complications, the calf is already taken out manually. Accordingly, there will be minor injuries to the uterus, plus tears usually remain on the tissues of the genitals. The afterbirth at complications leaves till 12 o'clock.
In pathological labors, the calf is taken out with great effort, with several people. Often, all this ends with serious ruptures of the uterus and nearby organs. The afterbirth is removed promptly.
Problems with gynecology during normal delivery occur in 10-15% of cows. If there were complications, then already 25-30% of cows can expect gynecological diseases. In pathology, the incidence rate reaches 95%.
Inversion of the uterus
Inversion or prolapse of the uterus is a very serious occurrence. Usually such a nuisance occurs after the forced removal of the calf in pathological childbirth. The view is, of course, terrible. Clusters of bloody muscles hang from the vagina. This leads to flaccidity of the uterus muscles caused by stall content.
When the uterus is reversed, it is necessary to act quickly. In addition to the obstetrician and veterinarian, at least two more experienced specialists are required. According to the instructions should set down four people.
With organ potassium is washed out the afterbirth. To remove the swelling, you need to wash the uterus with glucose solution (40%). Cow injected anti-inflammatory. In the presence of wounds, they are cauterized by iodine. After that, the body is wrapped with towels and set. Towels as they are removed are removed. At the end of a bandage or seam.
In addition to walks, cows in the risk group in the stall make a threshold, so that the croup is constantly raised relative to the body. In addition, the veterinarian prescribes drug prevention.
Subinvolution of the uterus
Subinvolution is the delayed return of the uterus to normal after childbirth. This disease can lead to metritis. Usually suffer from a bad reduction of the uterus of a cow with a stall. There are 3 forms of the disease:
- Acute - from childbirth develops up to 2 weeks;
- Subacute - here the development of the disease can last up to a month;
- Chronic - this form is diagnosed a month after childbirth.
In the acute form within two weeks there are burgundy-colored lochia. For the subacute form is characterized by a small amount of lochia that are allocated during the month. The lochias themselves are red, with a greasy consistency. In the chronic form, the uterine horns are enlarged and their hydride is weakened. In addition, there is acyclic, and in the ovaries the yellow body is persistent.
If a cow is suspected to have subinvolution during a hunt, then 2 ml of cervical mucus is taken. Add to it 2 ml of caustic alkali (solution of 10%) and 10 drops of copper sulfate (solution of 1%). If the disease is present, the composition will be brown or dark purple.
Most often, follicular cyst occurs as a result of hormonal disruptions and surges. Sometimes cysts are recorded during milking and in the period of the highest milk yield.
Such cows are characterized by nymphomania, that is, long and active periods of strong sexual over-stimulation. The final diagnosis can only be made by a veterinarian after a rectal examination.
A cyst is a large formation, such as a dropsy, mostly rounded. Inside, this dropsy is filled with follicles and yellow body cells. There is an assumption that a cyst results from the death of an egg cell. The diameter of a cyst in a cow can reach 6 cm.
It is possible to treat this disease in an operative and medical way. According to statistics, surgical intervention leads to the recovery of the cow only in 15% of cases. While the medication method gives about 80% of the cure.
Persistent yellow body
Such a yellow body is called persistent if it lingers and continues to function for more than a month in the ovaries of a non-pregnant animal. The cause may be chronic endometritis, non-insemination during hunting, or subinvolution of the uterus. In this case, the persistent form of the yellow body is formed from a cyclic form.
Large amounts of persistent corpus luteum cause excessive progesterone production. Which in turn can trigger the formation of cysts. Sometimes the cows can stop the cycle. The diagnosis is made by the veterinarian, for this he needs to conduct a rectal examination 2 times, the interval of honey with these examinations is 3 weeks.
Diseases and pathologies of the sexual sphere in cows cause great damage to both large farms and small private breeders. They can manifest themselves not explicitly and here you need to know the first signs. Share this information with your friends and maybe your like will help to cure some cow.
Did your cow have any of these diseases? Please share your comments in the comments.