In modern animal husbandry, endometritis in cows is still considered one of the main causes of declining fertility and even infertility. As farmers and veterinarians do not fight over the problem, statistics show that about 60% of cows after calving suffer from this dangerous disease. We will talk about the main causes of the disease and analyze the various forms of the disease. You will learn how to properly recognize and what treatment gives good results.
Different types of metritis
Endometritis in cattle is called inflammation of the uterus and its related organs. This often happens after calving. But this is a generalized definition. In fact, if a cow has inflammation of the uterus, then it will not always be endometritis. There are a number of viral diseases that lead to this result.
The correct diagnosis of the disease can only be made by a veterinarian on the basis of laboratory biochemical studies. But if the analysis nevertheless confirmed the preliminary diagnosis, then it is necessary to understand further how deeply the disease struck the uterus of the cows:
- if only the uterus mucosa is inflamed, then it is a classic cattle endometritis;
- if the inflammatory process has affected the muscles of the uterus, then myometritis is diagnosed;
- perimetric fix if the disease went deep into and got to the serous tissues;
- parametritis is diagnosed if the disease is neglected and the nearby organs are already inflamed.
Since this whole "bouquet" often begins with hidden endometritis in cows, the focus is on treating this particular disease.
Endometriosis or acute postpartum endometritis is most common in cows. On the one hand, this is good, since in the acute form the disease is much easier to diagnose by external signs. Veterinarians do not need to wait for long laboratory tests, you can begin to treat the cow immediately.
Symptoms and treatment of the subacute form of the disease in most cases are similar to the acute course. But the signs are not so obvious, strong attacks can alternate with an improvement in condition. Here the main thing is not to relax and continue intensive therapy, otherwise chronic endometritis can quickly “grow” out of the subacute form.
When the disease has turned into a chronic form, it is quite difficult to see it. In this case, laboratory studies are indispensable. It looks like cows with strong immunity can look healthy. But if you let it go, then after a while it suddenly turns out that part of the breeding stock has become fruitless.
The main causes of
Often, outbreaks of acute endometritis in cows cause birth trauma. With such injuries, an infection is introduced into the uterine mucosa. It is regrettable, but the main culprits of infection are people. Dirty hands and non-sterilized instruments are first on the list of causes of the disease.
During childbirth it is very important to organize the process of separation of the placenta. Rough, unqualified intervention can easily lead to the occurrence of the disease. "Competent" farmers who have saved on a vet call can then pay with the sterility of their cows.
Some positive diagnoses are accounted for by abortion. The birth of a dead fetus can lead to a purulent-catarrhal form of the disease, but more on that later.
Sometimes the disease occurs in pregnant cows even before calving. Brucellosis, chlamydia, campylobacteriosis and other urinary infections can cause plancentitis, which "results" in postpartum inflammation.
Indirect causes of disease
In addition to obvious violations at birth, subclinical endometritis can cause a number of indirect causes in a cow.
The first on the list of indirect causes is the weakening of immunity, caused by unbalanced or low-quality feed. Cattle should receive a complete set of vitamins and minerals. There is little grass or silage here, granulated feed should be present in the diet. And in disadvantaged farms, young and pregnant cows need to be separately prick vitamins.
Low professionalism of servants also often becomes the cause of the disease. The vet took delivery, made recommendations and left. A cow weakened by childbirth remains in the care of the staff, and the infection can get through the old litter, the dirty hands of a cattleman, and even a draft.
Rarely, but still happens when purulent-catarrhal endometritis occurs as a result of the genetic predisposition of the animal. You can fight this only with increased immunity and enhanced care.
Catarral form is recognizable by smell.
Catarrhal form of the disease occurs immediately after childbirth. At the first stage, the surface layer of the mucous membrane becomes inflamed. Only a very experienced veterinarian can diagnose such inflammation.
It is caused by the fact that after calving in an animal from the uterus, so-called lochia are abundantly released. The color of the discharge can vary from dark brown to white. In a healthy cow, they practically do not smell, and the sick animal has a peculiar smell, indicating the beginning of inflammation.
Catarrhal endometritis in a cow with strong immunity is asymptomatic, in a latent form. The farmer can find out about it only when irreversible changes begin, in other words, sterility will come. In weak and predisposed cows, this onset inevitably ends with a purulent-catarrhal form of endometritis.
Cow moans and arches back
Symptoms of purulent-catarrhal forms are already noticeable, but they clearly appear only after 8-10 days. This is something like an incubation period when a normal cow comes to life after giving birth. And the sick animal's appetite decreases, milk yield decreases, and sometimes the temperature may rise slightly.
The cow often has a false urge to urinate. In doing so, she arches her back, raises her tail, and, trying to urinate, begins to moan. Viscous purulent-catarrhal exudate may leak during massage of the uterus. If measures are not taken, the pus with bloody patches will begin to flow out of the vagina and in a calm, recumbent position.
Rectal examination shows that the uterus grows in size and practically does not contract. Sometimes it can sink into the abdominal cavity. The uterine horns increase markedly, and they are of different sizes.
The disease in the acute fibrous form is mainly manifested after childbirth. In strong animals with sufficiently strong immunity, the symptoms are mild. The top layer of the mucous membrane is affected only on the surface, but the fluid that is collected in the uterus contains a large amount of fibrin, and this distinguishes it from other forms of the disease.
Such a mass of fibrin inside the uterus forms a dirty yellow deposits, but the fibrous fluid does not cease to stand out.
When the amount of fibrous fluid in the uterus reaches a critical point, it begins to exit through the vagina. Recognize such a selection can be on the yellow-brown color and flakes in the composition. These flakes are precisely fibrin clots. Often the cow is not bothered by such secretions. Although, if the condition worsens markedly, it may indicate the onset of sepsis.
Fabrics die and reject
The cause of the necrotic form of the disease is usually a difficult birth. Necrosis affects not only the upper layers of the body. They can quickly destroy muscle tissue and literally penetrate all layers completely.
As a result of the lesion, a secret is formed that breaks through the mucous membrane and penetrates deep into. In such places, the tissues are compacted, food is no longer in them, the blood supply is disturbed. In the end, the tissues die off and as a result of decomposition they begin to be rejected by the body. If there are many such lesions, erosions appear and ulcers appear.
Necrotic endometritis is characterized by red discharge with a large number of tiny crumbs. That's just these crumbs and are dead tissues of the uterus.
With such a deep lesion, the infection quickly penetrates the blood and lymph, and then spreads throughout the body. Unlike the fibrous form, the animal visibly suffers, the temperature of the cow rises, the pulse quickens and diarrhea can occur.
In fact, this is the last stage of the disease, when the walls of the uterus begin to rot. In the exudate, which is excreted in large quantities, pus predominates. Such processes inevitably lead to severe intoxication and torment of the animal.
With endometritis of cows, standing on the verge of extensive sepsis, the body's defenses work very poorly. The animal has heart palpitations, breathing becomes frequent and intermittent. The temperature soars to a critical maximum and practically does not stray.
Milk, as a rule, disappears. The animal constantly lies and practically does not eat anything. From time to time a brown liquid with black splashes comes out of the vagina, and all this has a very unpleasant smell of rot.
The uterus loses its ability to contract and is filled with putrefactive exudate. Inflammation can spread to the peritoneum, and then the cause of death becomes peritonitis. Sometimes the uterus collapses due to overvoltage, which also leads to death.
How is the disease treated?
For the treatment of endometritis, as a rule, an integrated approach is used. There is a definite scheme by which most veterinarians act:
- removes all excess fluid from the uterus;
- a clean, antimicrobial environment is created inside the uterus;
- ability of the uterus to painless contractions returns;
- stimulation of the tissue repair process;
- active restoration of immunity.
To remove excess liquid, elementary washing with antibacterial solutions is usually used. Too much flooding is not recommended. Excess fluid is removed by anal massage or by vacuum.
Antimicrobial drugs are injected into the uterus to create a clean environment. Recently, foaming agents have shown good results. When hidden form well help solutions with the addition of iodine.
A few words about drugs
These or other therapeutic drugs should be prescribed, based on the results of a whole range of tests. But with the acute course of the disease, there is often no time. Therefore, the treatment of endometritis in cows at the initial stage is carried out on the basis of the experience and professional skills of the doctor. And only then, when the tests come, an adjustment is made.
Many people are now prescribing the drug "Uterosan" to restore the tissues and boost the immune system of the cow. This medicine cannot be stored; therefore, it is prepared right before use and injected directly into the uterus.
As for therapy, sticks of furazolidone have proven themselves well, in some cases they are replaced with neofurs. Efficiency can exceed 90%.
Subcutaneous oxytocin injections are usually made to restore the ability of the uterus to contract normally. But there is a nuance. In the acute course of the disease, hormonal drugs are first used and only after them (after 12 hours) is oxytocin therapy administered.
Measures to prevent this disease are quite simple, and most importantly they do not require serious investments. Naturally, the first, and perhaps most important, is the adjustment of the diet of pregnant cows and pregnant women.
During pregnancy, all cows must necessarily be pierced with the trivitamin complex. As for dysfunctional farms, there vitamins need to be prick from a calf age.
In order to exclude the latent course of the disease, 8-10 days after delivery, but no later than 2 weeks, tests should be taken from all pregnant women. If a cow has an increased immunoglobulin, then after calving, she is given antimicrobial, restorative therapy.
Endometritis is found in successful large farms and on private farms.
Share this information with your friends and maybe your like will save some poor burenka from puerperal problems.
Write a comment below, telling about your experience or the experience of your friends in the treatment of endometritis.